Write A Research Protocol And A Mini Dissertation

900 words for the protocol

3000 words for disertation with references

a powerpoint for presentation

ppt format:

1st slide:compare the price and product of coca cola and pepsi

2nd slide:Objective:To compare price of coca cola and pepsi. To compare product of coca cola and pepsi. To give recommendation.

3rd and 4th slide:Introduction coca cola and pepsi.

5th slide:recommendation

6th slide:conclusion.

7th slide: reference list

8th slide:Thank youuu……

Topic: Compare the products and price of Coca cola and Pepsi

Sample articles attached

Abstract

In China, customers select the online channel to buy luxury dues to the low price (Li, Robson & Coates, 2014). However, luxury is different from ordinary commodities that the low price cannot support the long-term development of luxury enterprise. Therefore, on one hand, the luxury e-commerce is pursued by investor; on the other hand, it is affected by the Chinese consumption environment, resulting in market shrinkage and a lot of waste of resources and false prosperity. On the basis of defects of luxury e-commerce in current situation, the research aims to analyse the feasibility and prospect expectation of luxury online sales through measuring the impact of customer’s perceived value on their intention to purchase luxury by e-commerce, so as to provide new ideas for the development of luxury e-commerce in China. Three dimensions of CPV given by Sweeney and Soutar (2001), customer perceived price, quality, and social value, are used to measure CPV. Based on them, the research objectives are as follows: to investigate the impact of customers’ perceived social value on their intention to purchase luxury by e-commerce; to investigate the impact of customers’ perceived quality value on their intention to purchase luxury by e-commerce; and to investigate the impact of customers’ perceived price value on their intention to purchase luxury by e-commerce.

Questionnaire survey is used to collect quantitative data and SPSS is used to analyse the quantitative data in order to explain the relationship between CPV and customers’ intention to purchase luxuries by e-commerce. Through analysis, the following conclusions are gained: Chinese customers’ perceived price value of luxuries provided by e-commerce is high. Chinese customers’ perceived quality value of luxuries provided by e-commerce is in the middle level. Chinese customers’ perceived social value of luxuries provided by e-commerce is high. Furthermore, Chinese customers’ perceived price, quality, and social value can all cause their intention to purchase luxuries by e-commerce to a great extent. What should be mentioned is that Chinese customers’ perceived quality value has the greatest impact on their purchase intention, followed by price and social value.

Contents

1. Introduction 4

1.1 Research background 4

1.2 Research objectives 4

1.3 Research rationale 5

1.4 Structure of this dissertation 5

Chapter 2 Literature review 6

2.1 E-commerce 6

2.2 Customer perceived value (CPV) 6

2.3 Dimensions of customer perceived value 6

2.3 Impact of customers’ perceived value on their intention to purchase luxury by e-commerce 7

Chapter 3 Methodology 9

3.1 Quantitative or qualitative 9

3.2 Philosophy, strategy, and approach of this research 9

3.3 Selection and design of research internment 10

3.4 Sampling method, data collection and analysis 10

3.5 Validity of data 11

3.6 Research ethics 11

Chapter 4 Findings and analysis 12

4.1 Analysis of respondents’ information 12

4.2 Analysis of impact of customers’ perceived value on their intention to purchase luxuries by e-commerce 13

Chapter 5 Conclusions and recommendations 17

References 18

Appendix 1 Questionnaire 21

Appendix 2 Tables 23

1. Introduction

1.1 Research background

In the background of global economic crisis, luxury enterprises which are affected by the promotion of capital and e-commerce development gradually joint in the online business. In China, customers select the online channel to buy luxury dues to the low price (Li, Robson & Coates, 2014). However, luxury is different from ordinary commodities that the low price cannot support the long-term development of luxury enterprise. Therefore, on one hand, the luxury e-commerce is pursued by investor; on the other hand, it is affected by the Chinese consumption environment, resulting in market shrinkage and a lot of waste of resources and false prosperity. On the basis of defects of luxury e-commerce in current situation, the research aims to analyse the feasibility and prospect expectation of luxury online sales through measuring the impact of customer’s perceived value on their intention to purchase luxury by e-commerce, so as to provide new ideas for the development of luxury e-commerce in China.

1.2 Research objectives

According to Sweeney and Soutar (2001), customer perceived value includes four dimensions: perceived emotional value, perceived social value, perceived quality value, perceived price value. Due to luxury’s special characteristics, perceived social value is an important dimension for study customers’ intention to purchase it. Perceived price value is also important as luxury purchase intention in e-commerce environment is studied. Moreover, perceived quality value is necessary for any type of products especially they luxury goods which are known as high quality. Nevertheless, perceived emotional value shows less importance in what is studied in this dissertation. Therefore, in the consideration of word limit, perceived emotional value is not investigated in this research. The final research objectives are as follows:

To investigate the impact of customers’ perceived social value on their intention to purchase luxury by e-commerce;

To investigate the impact of customers’ perceived quality value on their intention to purchase luxury by e-commerce;

To investigate the impact of customers’ perceived price value on their intention to purchase luxury by e-commerce.

1.3 Research rationale

This research is meaningful as it can enrich the existing theories and facilitate the development of Chinese luxury e-commerce. The existing researches of customer perceived value and purchase intention are abundant while they focused on the study of the two variables’ concepts and measurement (Chong, Yang and Wong, 2003). The relationship between the two variables was also frequently investigated (Chang and Wang, 2011). However, this dissertation tries to explain their relationship by emphasising luxury e-commerce, which is a field that is studied by much fewer previous researchers. Therefore, the existing theories can be enriched through what is studied in this research. Moreover, the corresponding recommendations will be given based on the research findings. The research findings can provide Chinese luxury e-commerce with evidences to better understand customers’ purchase intention in terms of luxury e-commerce. The recommendations offer alternative plans for Chinese luxury e-commerce to improve its development.

1.4 Structure of this dissertation

This research includes five chapters. This chapter is chapter 1 whose contents are as above. Chapter 2 is literature review which will critically review the previous researches related to customer perceived value, purchase intention, and luxury ecommerce. Chapter 3 is methodology which will discuss the research methods for data collection and analysis. Chapter 4 is findings and analysis which will summarise and analyse the research findings based on the data results. Chapter 5 is conclusions and recommendations which will give conclusions and recommendations for Chinese luxury e-commerce.

Chapter 2 Literature review

2.1 E-commerce

E-commerce (electronic commerce) refers to the trade activities which are conducted by using various electronic instruments (such as telegraph, telephone, broadcast, television, fax, computer, and mobile communications) within the global scope. These trade activities are conducted based on computer networks and include the transactions between product/service providers, advertisers, consumers, and intermediaries (Poong, Zaman and Talha, 2006). The e-commerce studied in this research is the commercial transactions between product/service providers and the final customers and more specifically is the transactions between the dealers of luxury brands and the individual customers over the internet.

2.2 Customer perceived value (CPV)

Porter (1985) was the first one who gave an explicit definition for CPV. He pointed out that this term refers to customers’ tradeoff between their perceived performance and perceived cost. Based on the definition given by Porter (1985), Zeithaml (1988) summarised four aspects of connotation for CPV: low price, the products/services needed in the process of consumption process, the product quality possessed by customers through their payment, and the tradeoff of payment and product quality. Subsequently, many researchers gave definitions for CPV. For instance, Monroe (1991) argued that this term is customers’ perceived benefits to perceived payment ratio. Anderson, Jain and Chintagunta (1992) held that this term refers to a series of tradeoffs of a product’s price and the economy, technology, service, and social benefits customers can gain by purchasing this product.

Based on the above researchers, the CPV studied in this research is defined as a series of tradeoffs of a customer’s payment (i.e. money, physical efforts, and time) for a product/service and the benefits he or she gains from purchase of this product/service.

2.3 Dimensions of customer perceived value

Sweeney and Soutar (2001) divided CPV into four dimensions: perceived emotional value, perceived social value, perceived quality value, perceived price value. Perceived emotional value refers to customers’ emotional state brought by using products/services, such as happy, excited, and joyful. Perceived social value refers to self-conscious benefits brought by using products/services, such as sense of superior to others. Perceived quality value is obtained when the practical utility of products/services is matched with or beyond customers’ expectation. Perceived price value is gained when customers think they purchase products/services at low (long term or short term) cost (Sweeney and Soutar, 2001). There are many other researcher gave dimensions for CPV. This research does not enumerate here as the four dimensions given by Sweeney and Soutar (2001) are appropriate to measure CPV in this dissertation. Finally, perceived social, quality, and price value are determined to be used to measure CPV. The reasons were discussed in section 1.2.

2.3 Impact of customers’ perceived value on their intention to purchase luxury by e-commerce

Customer purchase intention refers to whether a consumer is willing to purchase certain product by spending the offered price under the restriction of his or her fixed monetary income (Munnukka, 2008). The intention is usually produced because customers’ needs for something. For instance, if a person’s mobile phone is broken, he or she will intend to purchase a new one. However, even if the customers do not actually need something, they may be stimulated by the external environment and thereby product purchase intention. For example, an attractive advertisement of mobile phone may motivate a person to produce purchase intention although his or her phone works well.

Luxury is originally the unnecessary products for customers and therefore the purchase intention is usually formed by the external stimulation (Vigneron and Johnson, 2004). A major feature of purchase of luxury by e-commerce is the lower price provided by the enterprises. The same luxury products are sold at a much lower price than the physical stores. Many customers who perceive the offered price value will purchase luxury through e-commerce (Broillet, Dubosson and Varone, 2009). It can be seen that customers’ perceived price value can motive their intention to purchase luxury.

Moreover, the online vendors provide quality guarantee for their products and promise that their products are absolutely genuine. The channels are provided for them to verify whether the luxury product they purchase is genuine, such as anti-fake code. Under the comprehensive guarantee, customers can perceive the quality assurance given by online vendors and therefore produce intention to purchase genuine luxury at lower price over the e-commerce (Jagdish, Newman & Gross, 1991; Porat and Tractinsky, 2012).

In addition, luxury products have symbolic value which motivates the customers to purchase it for purpose of showing their social status and wealth, or gaining sense of superior to others (Bohme and Koble, 2007). To meet their purchases, many customers who don’t have absolute economic ability to purchase luxury products are very possible to buy the cheaper luxuries over the e-commerce (Broillet and Ecole, 2009; Yu, Niehm & Russell, 2011). However, Broillet, Dubosson and Trabichet (2008) argued that the social value of luxuries will be weakened by purchasing them from online vendors.

Chapter 3 Methodology

3.1 Quantitative or qualitative

Quantitative research method is adopted in this research in the consideration of better achieving the research objectives. Impact of customers’ perceived value on their intention to purchase luxury by e-commerce is investigated in this dissertation. Therefore, the collection of quantitative data (numerical data) is more appropriate as scientific analysis of numerical data can more accurately demonstrate the relationship between the two variables. However, the analysis of qualitative data (words) is completed by the researcher’s speculation (Cutcliffe and McKenna, 2002), which makes this research incapable of scientifically verify the relationship between them. Therefore, qualitative research method is not used in this research.

3.2 Philosophy, strategy, and approach of this research

Positivistic and phenomenological philosophies are two frequently used ones (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2009). This dissertation reflects positivistic philosophies as CPV and purchase intention and their relationship objectively exist in the business and management field. This research only tries to utilise scientific method to objectively verify their relationship. The similar results can be gained by other researchers provided they use appropriate measurement tools. Therefore, this research reflects positivistic philosophy which calls for the objectiveness of researcher and the observation of social reality (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2009).

Case study and survey are two common research strategies (Remenyi et al., 1998). This research adopts survey strategy as it allows the researcher to collect quantitative data using instruments such as observation, questionnaire, or interview (Curwin and Slater, 2007). Besides, survey is used here also because it helps the researcher to collect a large number of data from a sizeable population (Curwin and Slater, 2007). In this research, the Chinese customers who have purchased luxuries through e-commerce are the target population. This is a sizeable population and there is a need for this research to conduct sampling. Thus, survey which can generate findings representative of the whole population by sampling (Curwin and Slater, 2007) is used in this research.

Deductive approach and inductive approach are two research approaches (Hattie and Jaeger, 1998). This research adopts deductive approach as it is a quantitative approach which calls for collection of quantitative data, explanation of causal relationship, and the objectiveness of researcher (Hattie and Jaeger, 1998). However, inductive approach requires collection of qualitative data (Thomas, 2006), which is opposite to this research’s purpose. Thus, inductive approach is not a good choice.

3.3 Selection and design of research internment

It’s been mentioned that questionnaire can be used to collect quantitative in survey strategy. Therefore, questionnaire survey is the final instrument for data collection. The questionnaire is designed into two parts. The first part is demographic information through which the basic information of respondents is expected to be understood. The second part is main body through which the relationship between CPV and intention to purchase luxury by e-commerce is supposed to be explained. The specific contents are shown in Appendix 1.

3.4 Sampling method, data collection and analysis

To gain respondents from the target population (customers who have purchased luxuries through e-commerce), the researcher used convenient sampling method to collect the data in Shanghai China. During the period from 15th Nov. to 21st Nov. 2014, the researcher came back to China and distributed questionnaire to every other passer-by in Luxury shopping center in Shanghai. To improve the reliability of data, the researcher designed a question at the beginning of the questionnaire “did you purchase luxuries through e-commerce?”. This question helps the research gained the respondents who can better answer the research questions of this dissertation. In total 100 questionnaires were sent to customers and 71 of them were returned. The response rate is 71%. However, 19 of them answered no to the first question and therefore the final valid questionnaires are 52. After gaining the valid questionnaires, the researcher used SPSS to process and analyse the data. Specifically, frequency analysis was conducted on the data gained from part 1 of the questionnaires and mean analysis was conducted on the data gained from part 2 of the questionnaire. Some tables and figures were generated through analysis and will be used as the evidences for the summary and analysis of research findings in the next chapter.

3.5 Validity of data

Research validity is concerned with whether the measurement tool can generate research findings which are really about what they appear to be about (Avis, 2006). As for this dissertation, the researcher searched the relevant scales and reference of variables and designed the questionnaires by referencing the existing and mature scales of the previous researchers. Therefore, this research’s questionnaire has its powerful theoretical foundation and thus can ensure the validity.

3.6 Research ethics

The research avoided the ethic issues from the following aspects. The researcher asked for the permission of the passers-by before distributing questionnaires to them. The researcher also put the respondents at ease in order to avoid embarrassment. Moreover, the researcher did not force them to return the questionnaire. In the future, the customers will ensure the confidentiality of data and research results.

Chapter 4 Findings and analysis

4.1 Analysis of respondents’ information

52 valid questionnaires and thus the total number of the following statistics are 52. Table 4-1 Basic information of the respondents

QuestionsOptionsFrequencyPercentage
Age18 to 251325.0%
26 to 301426.9%
31 to 351019.2%
36 to 40713.5%
41 to 4559.7%
46 to 5023.8%
More than 5011.9%
GenderMale2446.2%
Female2853.8%
Income3000 and below35.8%
3001 to 5000713.5%
5001 to 80001223.1%
8001 to 100001426.9%
More than 100001630.8%

According to table 4-1, the respondents who are over 40 years old are much fewer than those who are under 40 years old. It can be seen that the younger people, especially those who are 18 to 30 years old, are more likely to purchase luxuries through e-commerce. E-commerce should be completed by using electronic facilities (i.e. computer) and internet technology (Poong, Zaman and Talha, 2006). The younger people are those who are more familiar with these facilities and technology. Therefore, they are the major force of customers of luxury e-commerce. According to the gender distribution, female respondents are more than male ones while the distance is not very obvious. Thus, it can be seen that both Chinese men and women will purchase luxuries through e-commerce while women have higher tendency to do this. Depending on the income distribution, people who earn more than 5000 are the major force of the respondents and the number of respondents is increasing as the income increase. Luxuries have much higher price than the ordinary products. Thus, economic foundation is necessary for purchase of luxuries even if discount is provided by e-commerce. However, the data shows that e-commerce does weaken luxuries’ requirements for economic power.

4.2 Analysis of impact of customers’ perceived value on their intention to purchase luxuries by e-commerce

Table 4-2 Customer perceived price value

NMinimumMaximumMeanStd. Deviation
The price of luxuries provided by e-commerce is much lower than that offered in the physical stores.521.005.004.11541.14881
The lower price provided by e-commerce motives me to produce intention to purchase luxuries through it.521.005.003.88461.23119
My intention to purchase luxuries through e-commerce is stronger as the price provided by it is lower and lower.521.005.002.94231.39204
Valid N (listwise)52

According to table 4-2, the mean of the first statement is 4.1, which is higher than 4 (suggests agree). It can be found that majority of respondents agree with this statement, which implies that the price of luxuries provided by e-commerce is truly lower than that offered in physical stores. For instance, the luxuries provide by Vip.com (a famous online vender in China) are sold at discount of 10% to 70%. The lower price offered by such online vendors can cut customers’ cost and thereby attract the luxury consumers or motivate low-income customers to produce intention to purchase luxuries over the Internet. The mean of the second statement can verifies this point. This mean is 3.88, which demonstrates that most of the respondents agree with the second statement and confirms that customers’ perceived price value can lead to their intention to purchase luxuries over the Internet to a great extent. However, the mean of the third statement is 2.94, which is lower than the neutral mean 3. This suggests that more respondents disagree with this statement and shows that their intention to purchase luxuries over the Internet will not always increase as the decrease of price. This is because high price is an accepted feature of luxuries (Vigneron and Johnson, 2004). If the prices provided by internet sellers are too low, the customers will suspect whether the luxuries sold by them is genuine and thereby give up purchase intention.

Table 4-3 Customer perceived quality value

NMinimumMaximumMeanStd. Deviation
The luxuries provided by e-commerce are genuine.521.005.003.48081.37898
The design, appearance, and materials of the luxuries provided by e-commerce are same with those offered in the physical stores.521.005.003.76921.27749
E-commerce provides me with the products of luxury brands which don’t have physical stores in China.521.005.003.44231.43368
If the quality of luxuries provided by e-commerce can reach the above levels, I will produce purchase intention.521.005.004.0769.94653
Valid N (listwise)52

According to table 4-3, the means of the first and third statements are 3.48 and 3.44 in turn, which are both higher than the neutral mean 3 but not too much. It can be found that some but far from the whole respondents believe the luxuries provided by e-commerce are genuine or agree Internet sellers can offer more luxury brands. Therefore, Chinese luxury e-commerce should make more efforts to improve their customers’ recognition of the authenticity of their luxuries and provide more categories of luxury brands to attract customers. However, the mean of the second mean is 3.76, which is much higher than 3. This suggests that Chinese internet sellers can provide luxuries which have same design, appearance, and materials with those in physical stores. Customers usually cannot evaluate whether a luxury is true or false. The similarity of the design, appearance, and materials is the only way for customers to conduct judgement. Moreover, the mean of the fourth statement is 4.07, which is higher than 4. This demonstrates that majority of the respondents pay great attention to the authenticity of the luxuries provided by Internet sellers and their purchase intention is significant influenced by their perceived quality value. Luxuries have superior quality (Broillet, Dubosson and Varone, 2009) which is an important aspect pursued by luxury customers. Therefore, if they feel or know the luxuries provided by e-commerce is not genuine, their purchase intention will be eliminated.

Table 4-4 Customer perceived social value

NMinimumMaximumMeanStd. Deviation
The luxuries I purchase through e-commerce improve my social relationship at lower cost.521.005.003.80771.12090
The luxuries I purchase through e-commerce bring me sense of superior to others at lower cost.521.005.003.71151.36247
The above two points motivate me to produce intention to purchase luxuries through e-commerce.521.005.003.76921.21454
The luxuries I purchase through e-commerce usually cannot bring me the same social value as those I purchase in physical stores, thus I will not purchase through e-commerce next time.521.005.002.96151.57133
Valid N (listwise)52

According to table 4-4, the means of the first two statements are 3.80 and 3.71 in turn, which are both much higher than 3. It can be found that most of respondents think luxuries purchase over the Internet can provide them with social value at lower cost. They can spend less buying luxuries through which their need of building social relationship can be met and sense of superior to others can be gained. Usually, luxuries can be identified by some apparent symbols, letters or others. People will not deeply judge the authenticity of others’ luxuries. Moreover, the luxuries sold over the Internet have same design, appearance, and materials with the ones in physical stores. Thus, customers can perceive the same social value from luxuries the purchase over the Internet. Their intention to purchase luxuries over the Internet is then caused by the social value they perceive. This point can be verified by the mean of the third statement. This mean is 3.76, which is much higher than 3 and suggests the respondents’ perceived social value has positive impact on their intention to purchase luxuries by e-commerce. In addition, the mean of the fourth statement is 2.96, which demonstrates that the respondents deny this statement. It can be seen that the respondents’ perceived social value of luxuries is not weakened by the purchase channels, which provides great opportunity for the development of Chinese luxury e-commerce. Therefore, the view of Broillet, Dubosson and Trabichet (2008) (see section 2.3) is denied in this dissertation.

Chapter 5 Conclusions and recommendations

Based on findings and analysis in the last chapter, this dissertation gains the following conclusions: Chinese customers’ perceived price value of luxuries provided by e-commerce is high. Chinese customers’ perceived quality value of luxuries provided by e-commerce is in the middle level. Chinese customers’ perceived social value of luxuries provided by e-commerce is high. Furthermore, Chinese customers’ perceived price, quality, and social value can all cause their intention to purchase luxuries by e-commerce to a great extent. What should be mentioned is that Chinese customers’ perceived quality value has the greatest impact on their purchase intention, followed by price and social value. Therefore, Chinese luxury e-commerce should make more efforts to improve their customers’ perceived quality value. Specifically, Chinese Internet luxury sellers can provide reliable channels for their customers to verify the luxuries’ authenticity, such as anti-fake code and the website or phone number to test the code, or regularly hold on the scene test activities.

References

Anderson, J. C., Jain, D. C. and Chintagunta, P. K. (1992) ‘Customer value assessment in business Markets: A state-of-practice study’, Journal of Business-to-Business Marketing, 1(1), pp. 3-29.

Avis, M. (2006) ‘Valid arguments? A consideration of the concept of validity in establishing the credibility of research findings’, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 22(6), pp. 1203-1209.

Bohme, R. and Koble, S. (2007) On the viability of privacy-enhancing technologies in a self-regulated business-to-consumer market: Will privacy remain a luxury good? Available at: http://weis2007.econinfosec.org/papers/30.pdf (Accessed: 13 Nov. 2014).

Broillet, A. and Ecole, H. (2009) An internet based distribution strategy of luxury products and services grounded on qualitative web discourse analysis. Available at: http://doc.rero.ch/lm.php?url=1000,43,9,20090331122443-GX/Internet_based_distribution_strategy.pdf (Accessed: 13 Nov. 2014).

Broillet, A., Dubosson, M. and Trabichet, J. P. (2008) ‘An Internet based distribution strategy of luxury products and services grounded on qualitative Web discourse analysis’, Professional Communication Conference, pp. 1-7.

Broillet, A., Dubosson, M. and Varone, S. (2009) ‘Service design needs for luxury e-commerce: An empirical study’, International Conference on Service Operations and Logistics, and Informatics, pp. 244-248.

Chang, H. H. and Wang, H. W. (2011) ‘The moderating effect of customer perceived value on online shopping behaviour’, Online Information Review, 35(3), pp. 333-359.

Chong, B., Yang, Z. and Wong, M. (2003) ‘Asymmetrical impact of trustworthiness attributes on trust, perceived value and purchase intention: a conceptual framework for cross-cultural study on consumer perception of online auction’, ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, pp. 213-219.

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Sweeney, J. C. and Soutar, G. N. (2001) ‘Consumer perceived value: the development of a multiple item scale’, Journal of Retailing, 77(2), pp. 203-220.

Thomas, D. R. (2006) ‘A general inductive approach for analyzing qualitative evaluation data’, American Journal of Evaluation, 27(2), pp. 237-246.

Vigneron, F. and Johnson, L. W. (2004) ‘Measuring perceptions of brand luxury’, The Journal of Brand Management, 11(6), pp. 484-506.

Yu, U. J., Niehm, L. S. & Russell, D. W. (2011) ‘Exploring perceived channel price, quality, and value as antecedents of channel choice and usage in multichannel shopping’, Journal of Marketing Channels, 6(1), pp.115-118

Zeithaml, V. A. (1988) ‘Consumer perceptions of price, quality, and value: a means-end model and synthesis of evidence’, The Journal of Marketing, 52(3), pp.45-50.

Appendix 1 Questionnaire

Thanks for your participation of this investigation! This questionnaire is for an academic research which aims to study the impact of customer perceived value on their intention to purchase luxury by e-commerce. This questionnaire is answered anonymously and the researcher will not show any personal information of you. Thus, you don’t need to worry about your privacy. Please fill in the questionnaire based on your true thought.

Did you purchase luxuries through e-commerce?

A. Yes B. No

Part 1 Demographic information

1. Age_ (years old)

A. 18 to 25 B. 26 to 30 C. 31 to 35 D. 36 to 40

E 41 to 45 F. 46 to 50 G. More than 50

2. Gender_

A. Male B. Female

3. Income_ (Yuan)

A. 3000 and below B. 3001 to 5000 C. 5001 to 8000

D. 8001 to 10000 E. More than 10000

Part 2 Main body

Likert’s five point scale is used to measure the impact of customers’ perceived value on their intention to purchase luxuries by e-commerce. There are five options for you: strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree, and strongly agree. The corresponding numbers are 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 in turn. Please tick the one which can reflect your opinion.

DimensionsQItemsStrongly disagreedisagreeneutralagreeStrongly agree
Customer perceived price value1The price of luxuries provided by e-commerce is much lower than that offered in the physical stores.12345
2The lower price provided by e-commerce motives me to produce intention to purchase luxuries through it.12345
3My intention to purchase luxuries through e-commerce is stronger as the price provided by it is lower and lower.12345
Customer perceived quality value4The luxuries provided by e-commerce are genuine.12345
5The design, appearance, and materials of the luxuries provided by e-commerce are same with those offered in the physical stores.12345
6E-commerce provides me with the products of luxury brands which don’t have physical stores in China.12345
7If the quality of luxuries provided by e-commerce can reach the above levels, I will produce purchase intention.12345
Customer perceived social value8The luxuries I purchase through e-commerce improve my social relationship at lower cost.12345
9The luxuries I purchase through e-commerce bring me sense of superior to others at lower cost.12345
10The above two points motivate me to produce intention to purchase luxuries through e-commerce.12345
11The luxuries I purchase through e-commerce usually cannot bring me the same social value as those I purchase in physical stores, thus I will not purchase through e-commerce next time.12345

Appendix 2 Tables

QuestionsOptionsFrequencyPercentage
Age18 to 251325.0%
26 to 301426.9%
31 to 351019.2%
36 to 40713.5%
41 to 4559.7%
46 to 5023.8%
More than 5011.9%
GenderMale2446.2%
Female2853.8%
Income3000 and below35.8%
3001 to 5000713.5%
5001 to 80001223.1%
8001 to 100001426.9%
More than 100001630.8%
NMinimumMaximumMeanStd. Deviation
The price of luxuries provided by e-commerce is much lower than that offered in the physical stores.521.005.004.11541.14881
The lower price provided by e-commerce motives me to produce intention to purchase luxuries through it.521.005.003.88461.23119
My intention to purchase luxuries through e-commerce is stronger as the price provided by it is lower and lower.521.005.002.94231.39204
Valid N (listwise)52
NMinimumMaximumMeanStd. Deviation
The luxuries provided by e-commerce are genuine.521.005.003.48081.37898
The design, appearance, and materials of the luxuries provided by e-commerce are same with those offered in the physical stores.521.005.003.76921.27749
E-commerce provides me with the products of luxury brands which don’t have physical stores in China.521.005.003.44231.43368
If the quality of luxuries provided by e-commerce can reach the above levels, I will produce purchase intention.521.005.004.0769.94653
Valid N (listwise)52
NMinimumMaximumMeanStd. Deviation
The luxuries I purchase through e-commerce improve my social relationship at lower cost.521.005.003.80771.12090
The luxuries I purchase through e-commerce bring me sense of superior to others at lower cost.521.005.003.71151.36247
The above two points motivate me to produce intention to purchase luxuries through e-commerce.521.005.003.76921.21454
The luxuries I purchase through e-commerce usually cannot bring me the same social value as those I purchase in physical stores, thus I will not purchase through e-commerce next time.521.005.002.96151.57133
Valid N (listwise)52