Week 7 – Assignment: Summarize And Evaluate A Peer-Reviewed Journal Article
Now, write a summary of the research, including background information on the topic, the main hypotheses, methods, results, and the conclusions drawn by the researchers. In addition to this summary, be sure to address the following in your paper:
- Describe the variables used in the analysis, along with the level of measurement (i.e., nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio) for each variable.
- Explain why the researchers used chi-square to analyze the data. In other words, how does the level at which each variable is measured determine which analysis is appropriate? Please support your answer to this question using the course materials or other scholarly resources.
- Did the authors use a diverse group of participants (e.g., various ages, races, etc.) in their research? You should describe some characteristics of the sample used in the research.
Screening for Depression Among Minority Young Males Attending a Family Planning Clinic
Ruth S. Buzi and Peggy B. Smith Baylor College of Medicine
Maxine L. Weinman University of Houston
The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to assess depression among 535 African American and Hispanic young males ages 14 to 27 attending a family planning clinic. The assessment indicated that 119 (22.2%) males met criteria for depression. The study also examined the associations between depression, sociodemographics, and service requests. Depressed males were more likely than nondepressed males to be Hispanic and to request services related to relationships, feelings, financial resources, physical issues, and well-being. The findings indicated that young males who are affected by depression have unmet needs, but when given an opportunity, are able to express those needs. Because family planning clinics are increasing the number of male clients, they are well positioned to screen them for depression.
Keywords: young males, depression, request for services
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is recognized as one of the most common chronic conditions today. According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2012), ap- proximately 2 million adolescents, or 8.0% of the population ages 12 to 17, had at least one major depressive episode during 2010. A recent report by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA, 2012) indicates that one in five American adults aged 18 or older, or 45.6 million, people had mental illness in the past year. The rate of mental illness was twice as high among those 18 –25 (29.8%) than among those aged 50 and older (14.3%).
Males experience more persistent depressive symptoms and disorders from adolescence into adulthood than females (Dunn & Goodyer, 2006; Colman, Wadsworth, Croudace, & Jones, 2007). Non-Hispanic African American males tend to have the highest rates of MDD at 13.2%, followed by Hispanics or Latinos (12.7%) and then non-Hispanic Whites (8.7%) U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2012). Depression among minority adolescents and young adults was found to be
related to stress, lack of social resources, and low socioeco- nomic status (Brown, Meadows, & Elder, 2007). Risk factors for African American men’s depression include economic strain, interpersonal conflicts, and racial discrimination (Wat- kins, Green, Rivers, & Rowell, 2006). Hispanic and African American males also display significantly earlier onset of MDD compared with their White counterparts (Riolo, Nguyen, Gre- den, & King, 2005).
Despite the fact that males also suffer from depression, they seek mental help from health care professionals less frequently than females, which only further decreases the likelihood of diagnosing their mental health disorders (Addis & Mahalik, 2003; Smith, Braunack-Mayer, & Wittert, 2006). Males often feel pressured to avoid emotional expression, conceal weak- nesses and vulnerability, and solve problems without requesting the help of others (Rochlen, McKelley, & Pituch, 2006). That pressure to be “masculine” may explain why men more readily than women express anger and irritability when depressed (Winkler, Pjrek, & Kasper, 2005).
Previous studies have found a strong association between somatic symptoms and depression (Saluja et al., 2004; Haug, Mykletun, & Dahl, 2004). Research also has indicated males who experience physical symptoms of depression are more likely to seek medical attention (Ferrin, Gledhill, Kramer, & Garrada, 2009). The National Institute of Mental Health has reported males are not always aware of symptoms of depres- sion, which include physical issues such as headaches, stomach problems, and chronic pain (Harvard Medical School, 2011).
Family planning clinics provide access to reproductive health services to males. This can provide an opportunity to assess and address their mental health needs. However, research on mental health needs of males in these settings is scant. The purpose of
This article was published Online First February 18, 2013. Ruth S. Buzi and Peggy B. Smith, Population Program, Baylor College
of Medicine; Maxine L. Weinman, Graduate College of Social Work, University of Houston.
This project was funded in part by the Texas Department of State Health Services (TDSHS), the Office of Population Affairs/Office of Family Planning (OPA/OFP) Department of Health and Human Service, and the McGovern Foundation.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Ruth S. Buzi, LCSW, PhD, Associate Professor, Population Program, Baylor Col- lege of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Psychology of Men & Masculinity © 2013 American Psychological Association 2014, Vol. 15, No. 1, 116 –119 1524-9220/14/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/a0031574
this study was to assess depression among young males attend- ing a family planning clinic and whether depression varied by sociodemographics and service requests. This study can begin to fill the gaps and provide som