Summary

write maximum 3 pages summary based on class lecture. It should include all the information of professor’s powerpoint is called week6 gathering information (which is the lecture, activities, and the presentation from 2 students, everything should be in order like the way in professor’s presentation.) i also attached 2 powerpoints from 2  students, and a sample summary that I have write before, the purpose of the previous summary just to give you an idea of how to write a summary, no need to include information when you write this summary

Psyc601 – K. Shultz, Week 6

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PSYC601 – Week 6 Gathering Information and Implementation

Tong’s Presentation – Rater Issues

Gathering Information in PM (Ch 6)

Case Study 6-3

BREAK

Arturo’s Presentation – Rating Issues

Implementation of the PM Process (Ch 7)

Modified Case Studies 7-2 and 7-3

Things to come

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Appraisal Forms: 8 Desirable Features

Simplicity

Relevancy

Descriptiveness

Adaptability

Comprehensiveness

Definitional Clarity

Communication

Time Orientation

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Determining Overall Rating

Judgmental strategy

Holistic judgments – with defensible summary

Mechanical strategy

Weighted summary based on relative importance

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Appraisal Period and Timing

Number of Meetings

Annual, Semi-annual, or Quarterly

Anniversary Date

Supervisor doesn’t have to fill out forms at same time, but

Can’t tie rewards to fiscal year

Fiscal Year

Rewards tied to fiscal year

Goals tied to corporate goals, but

May be burden to supervisor, depending on implementation

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Who Should Provide Performance Information?

Employees should be involved in selecting

Which sources evaluate

Which performance dimensions

When employees are actively involved

Higher acceptance of results

Perception that system is fair

Those with direct knowledge of employee performance should be used

Supervisors, Peers, Subordinates, Self, Customers (both internal and external)

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Disagreement Across Sources

Expect disagreement

Ensure employee receives feedback by source

Assign differential weights to scores by source, depending on importance

Ensure employees take active role in selecting which sources will rate which dimensions

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Types of Rating Errors

Intentional errors

Rating inflation

Rating deflation

Unintentional errors

Due to complexity of task

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Expected Positive and Negative Consequences of Rating Accuracy

Probability of Experiencing Positive and Negative Consequences

Expected Positive and Negative Consequences of Rating Distortion

Probability of Experiencing Positive and Negative Consequences

Motivation to Provide Accurate Ratings

Motivation to Distort Ratings

Rating Behavior

A Model of Rater Motivation

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Rater Training Programs Should Cover

Information on how the system works

Motivation – What’s in it for me?

Identifying, observing, recording and evaluating performance

How to interact with employees when they receive performance information

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Case Study – 6.3

Based on what we now know about rater training programs, rate each content area in terms of whether they are intentional error or unintentional errors.

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Break

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Implementing a Performance Management System: Overview

Preparation

Communication Plan

Appeals Process

Training Programs

Pilot Testing

Ongoing Monitoring and Evaluation

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Preparation

Need to gain system buy-in through:

Communication plan regarding Performance Management system

Including appeals process

Training programs for raters

Pilot testing system

Ongoing monitoring and evaluation

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Communication Plan Answers

What is Performance Management (PM)?

How does PM fit in our strategy?

What’s in it for me?

How does it work?

What are our roles and responsibilities?

How does PM relate to other initiatives?

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Cognitive Biases that Affect Communications Effectiveness

Selective exposure

What you see?

Selective perception

What you perceive?

Selective retention

What you retain?

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To minimize effects of cognitive biases

A. Consider employees

Involve employees in system design

Show how employee needs are met

B. Emphasize the positive

Use credible communicators

Strike first – create positive attitude

Provide facts and conclusions

C. Repeat, document, be consistent

Put it in writing

Use multiple channels of communication

Say it, and then – say it again

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Appeals Process

Promote Employee buy-in to PM system

Amicable/Non-retaliatory

Resolution of disagreements

Employees can question two types of issues

Judgmental -validity of evaluation

Administrative-whether policies and procedures were followed

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Appeals Process

Level 1

HR reviews facts, policies, procedures

HR reports to supervisor/employee

HR attempts to negotiate settlement

Level 2

Arbitrator (panel of peers and managers) and/or

High-level manager – final decision

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Rater Training Programs

Content Areas to include

Information

Identifying, Observing, Recording, Evaluating

How to Interact with Employees

Choices of Training Programs to implement

Rater Error Training

Frame of Reference Training

Behavioral Observation

Self-leadership Training

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Content

A. Information – how the system works

Reasons for implementing the performance management system

Information

the appraisal form

system mechanics

B. Identifying, observing, recording, and evaluating performance

How to identify and rank job activities

How to observe, record, and measure performance

How to minimize rating errors

C. How to interact with employees when they receive performance information

How to conduct an appraisal interview

How to train, counsel, and coach

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Choices of Training Programs

Rater Error Training (RET)

Frame of Reference Training (FOR)

Behavioral Observation Training (BO)

Self-leadership Training (SL)

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Intentional Rating Errors

Leniency (inflation)

Severity (deflation)

Central tendency

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Unintentional Rating Errors

Similar to Me

Halo

Primacy

First Impression

Contrast

Stereotype

Negativity

Recency

Spillover

Attribution

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Frame of Reference Training (FOR)

Goal of FOR*

Raters develop common frame of reference

Observing performance

Evaluating performance

*Most appropriate when PM appraisal system focuses on behaviors

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Behavioral Observation Training (BO)

Goals of BO

Minimize unintentional rating errors

Improve rater skills by focusing on how raters:

Observe performance

Store information about performance

Recall information about performance

Use information about performance

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Self-leadership Training (SL)

Goals of SL

Improve rater confidence in ability to manage performance

Enhance mental processes

Increase self-efficacy

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Pilot Testing

Provides ability to

Discover potential problems

Fix them

Benefits

Gain information from potential participants

Learn about difficulties/obstacles

Collect recommendations on how to improve

Understand personal reactions

Get early buy-in

Get higher rate of acceptance

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Implementing a Pilot Test

Roll out test version with sample group

Staff and jobs generalizable to organization

Fully implement planned system

All participants keep records of issues encountered

Do not record appraisal scores

Collect input from all participants

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Ongoing Monitoring and Evaluation

When system is implemented, decide:

How to evaluate system effectiveness

How to measure implementation

How to measure results

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Evaluation data to collect

Reactions to the system

Assessments of requirements

Operational

Technical

Effectiveness of performance ratings

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Indicators to Consider

Number of individuals evaluated

Distribution of performance ratings

Quality of information

Quality of performance discussion meetings

System satisfaction

Cost/benefit ratio

Unit-level and organization-level performance

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Case Study 7-2 and 7-3

After implementing the PM process (via Exercise 7-1)

Setting up an appeals process (Exercise 7-2)

Evaluating the process (Exercise 7-3)

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Summary – Chapter 6

Several keys to good and useful PA forms

Can combine information via mechanical or holistic approaches

Several practical issues to work out (e.g., appeals period, who should rate)

Many potential motivators for raters

Several options to reduce rater distortion

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Summary – Chapter 7

Implementation of a solid PM process requires lots of preparation

Rater training a key component

Many options here

Pilot testing and ongoing monitoring keys to success

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Next Time

Discussion of Chapter 8 in Aguinis – PM and Employee Development

Presentations by:

Zytlaly (360 degree feedback), and

Jamie (personal development plans)

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