SPEECH HW CH 8

Read the Chapter only do not use out sources. do the following

What are the two most important concepts in this chapter?

Describe the concepts as if you were explaining them to a friend.

How will you use the concepts in the class or in your personal or professional life?

you must use the terms from the text and write at least 150 words

Chapter 8 The Introduction and Conclusion

SPEAK

© 2011 Cengage Learning

In this chapter, you will learn how to create an introduction that both gets attention and leads into the body of the speech; create a conclusion that both summarizes the material and leaves the speech on a high note; write a title; and compile a list of the sources you used to develop the speech.

5/27/2014 3:54 PM

© 2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries.

The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentation. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION.

1

The mind is

© 2011 Cengage Learning

There are three things to aim at in public speaking: First to get into your subject, then to get your subject into yourself, and lastly, to get your subject into your hearers.

~ Gregg

Learning Outcomes:

1. Why are introductions and conclusions so important to effective public speaking?

2. How can you get your audience’s attention in your introduction?

3. Why should you summarize your main points again in the conclusion?

4. How might you motivate listeners to remember your speech in your conclusion?

5. How do you determine which sources to include in your outline and reference list?

Action Step 4: Organize and Develop Ideas into a Well-Structured Outline

E. Create the speech introduction.

F. Create the speech conclusion.

G. Compile the list of sources used.

H. Complete the formal speech outline.

5/27/2014 3:54 PM

© 2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries.

The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentation. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION.

2

The Importance of a Good Introduction & Conclusion

The Primacy-Recency Effect

© 2011 Cengage Learning

What Is the Primacy-Recency Effect?

The primacy-recency effect states that we are more likely to remember the first and last items conveyed orally in a series than the items in between. Therefore, it’s important to highlight your goal/main points in your speech introduction and reinforce them by stating them in the conclusion.

5/27/2014 3:54 PM

© 2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries.

The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentation. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION.

3

Goals of an Introduction

© 2011 Cengage Learning

To get listeners’ attention

To establish listener relevance

To establish speaker credibility & goodwill

To identify your thesis statement

Goals of an Introduction:

To get listeners’ attention

To establish listener relevance

To establish speaker credibility & goodwill

To identify your thesis statement

Because the introduction establishes your relationship with your audience, take the time to compare different openings.

If someone hasn’t formally introduced you before you speak, audience members are going to wonder who you are and why they should pay attention to what you say. So, another goal of the introduction is to begin to build your credibility.

Finally, because audiences want to know what your speech is going to be about, it’s important to state your thesis.

4

Effective Introductions

Present a startling fact or statistic

Ask a question

Tell a story

Tell a joke OR NOT

Recite a quotation

Supple a personal reference

Create suspense

© 2011 Cengage Learning

A startling statement is a sentence or two that grabs your listeners’ attention by shocking them in some way.

A question is a request for information that encourage your audience to get involved with your topic.

A story is an account of something that has happened or could happen.

A joke (humor) is an anecdote or a piece of wordplay designed to be funny and make people laugh.

A personal reference/anecdote is a brief story about something that happened to you or a hypothetical situation that listeners can imagine themselves in.

A quote is a comment made by and attributed to someone other than the speaker.

A personal reference is a brief story about something that happened to you or a hypothetical situation that listeners can imagine themselves in.

Create suspense, you word your attention getter so that what is described generates uncertainty or mystery during the first few sentences and excites the audience.

You can introduce your topic and gain attention through an action, an attention-getting act designed to highlight your topic or purpose.

5

Goals of the Conclusion

FIRST SIGNAL

To summarize speech goal & main points.

To leave your audience with a vivid impression of your message.

© 2011 Cengage Learning

A strong conclusion can heighten the impact of a good speech. Even though the conclusion will be a relatively short part of the speech—seldom more than 5 percent (thirty-five to forty-five words for a five-minute speech)—your conclusion should be carefully planned.

Just as with your speech introduction, prepare two or three conclusions, and then choose the one you believe will be the most effective for your audience and speaking occasion.

Goals of the Conclusion:

To summarize speech goal & main points.

To leave your audience with a vivid impression of your message

a. Clincher: A one- or two-sentence statement that provides a sense of closure by driving home the importance of your speech

b. Appeal to action: A description of the behavior you want your listeners to follow after they have heard your arguments.

6

Effective Conclusions

© 2011 Cengage Learning

Present a startling fact or statistic

Ask a question

Tell a story

Tell a joke

Recite a quotation

Supple a personal reference

Create suspense

7

Completing the Outline

© 2011 Cengage Learning

To complete the formal outline, you must:

List your sources

Create a title for your speech

simple statement of subject

question

creative title

Review the outline format

Listing sources will help you direct audience members to the specific source of the information you have used and will allow you to quickly find the information at a later date. You will also want to use internal references throughout the formal speech outline to help you remember what to cite and where during your speech.

It usually helps to have a title that lets the audience know what to expect. A title is probably necessary when you will be formally introduced, when the speech is publicized, or when the speech will be published. A good title helps to attract an audience and build interest in what you will say.

After you have created all of the parts of the outline, you need to put them together in complete outline form and edit them to make sure the outline is well organized and well worded.

Exhibit 8.1 (page 109) gives examples of the MLA & APA citation forms

The questions on the following slide will allow you to complete & review the information in your formal outline.

8

Checklist to Complete the Final Review of Your Formal Outline

© 2011 Cengage Learning

Have you used a standard set of symbols to indicate structure?

Have you written main points & major subdivisions as complete sentences?

Do main points & major subdivisions each contain a single idea?

Does each major subdivision relate to or support its major points?

Are potential subdivision elaborations indicated?

This checklist can help you complete the final review of your formal outline before you move into adaptation and rehearsal.

9