Speech Hw 6

Read the Chapter only do not use out sources. do the following

What are the two most important concepts in this chapter?

Describe the concepts as if you were explaining them to a friend.

How will you use the concepts in the class or in your personal or professional life?

you must use the terms from the text and write at least 150 words. one page

Chapter 6 Topic development

SPEAK

© 2011 Cengage Learning

In this chapter, you will learn how to locate and evaluate a variety of information types and sources, identify and select relevant information, and cite key sources appropriately in your speech.

12/17/2015 10:47 AM

© 2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries.

The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentation. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION.

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The mind is

© 2011 Cengage Learning

Get the facts, or the facts will get you. And when you get ’em, get ’em right, or they will get you wrong.

~Thomas Fuller

Learning Outcomes:

1. What are the differences between primary and secondary research?

2. Where can you locate information for your speech?

3. How will you evaluate information and sources?

4. How will you select and record relevant information for your speech?

5. How and why do you cite sources in a speech?

12/17/2015 10:47 AM

© 2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries.

The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentation. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION.

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Locate & Evaluate Information Sources

Evidence

Primary research

Secondary research

© 2011 Cengage Learning

Evidence is essentially any information that clarifies, explains, or otherwise adds depth or breadth to a topic.

You can find evidence related to your specific speech goal first by assessing your own knowledge, experience, and personal observations. Then you can move to secondary research.

If the information you find from secondary sources is insufficient and doesn’t answer all of the questions you are seeking answers for, you may need to conduct primary research.

Action Step 3 Gather and Evaluate Information:

Examine what you know already and areas where you need additional information

Locate, evaluate, and select a variety of information types and sources

Prepare research cards

Cite sources

Locate & Evaluate Information Sources

Evidence – any information that clarifies, explains, or otherwise adds depth or breadth to a topic

Primary research—the process of collecting data about your topic directly from the real world (your personal knowledge & experience)

Secondary research – the process of locating information that has been discovered by other people

12/17/2015 10:47 AM

© 2007 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries.

The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentation. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION.

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Primary Research

© 2011 Cengage Learning

Fieldwork observations

Surveys

Interviews

Original artifacts or document examinations

Experiments

When there is little secondary research available on your topic or on a main idea you want to develop in your speech, or when you wonder whether what you are reading about is true in a particular setting, primary research may be necessary.

Fieldwork observations

Surveys

Interviews

Original artifact or document examinations

Experiments are all types of primary research.

Be aware, however, that primary research is much more labor intensive and time consuming than secondary research.

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Secondary Research Sources

Encyclopedias

Books

Newspaper & periodical articles

Statistical sources

Biographies

Quotation books & websites

Government documents

© 2011 Cengage Learning

As you conduct your search for secondary sources, you’ll want to draw from a variety of types. You can find pertinent information in encyclopedias, books, articles in academic journals and magazines, newspapers, statistical sources, biographies, quotation books and websites, and government documents.

The textbook provides many specific examples of encyclopedias, electronic databases, biographies, books of quotations, and similar references.

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Determining & Evaluating Source Value

Determining Source Value

Skimming

Reading

© 2011 Cengage Learning

Evaluating

Criteria to use to

determine accuracy,

reliability & validity of

sources are:

Authority

Objectivity

Currency

Relevance

Because your search of secondary sources is likely to uncover far more information than you can use, you will want to skim sources or read abstracts of source material to determine whether or not to read them in full. Skimming material or reading abstracts can help you decide which sources are likely to be useful.

Determining & Evaluating Source Value

Skimming: rapidly going through a work to determine what is covered & how

Reading the abstract: a short paragraph summarizing research findings

Not all source material is equally accurate, reliable, and valid. The first test of a resource is the expertise of its author and/or the reputation of the publishing or sponsoring organization. You will also want to be wary of information that is overly biased.

In addition, be aware that newer information is generally more accurate than older data. And be sure to use only information that is directly related to your topic and supports your main points.

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Guidelines for Conducting Interviews

© 2011 Cengage Learning

Select the best person

Prepare the interview protocol/questions

Conduct the interview

Process the interview

Guidelines for conducting Interviews:

Select the best person

Prepare the interview protocol/questions:

Primary questions: lead-in questions about one of the major topics of the interview, typically related to the main points for the speech.

Secondary questions: are follow-up questions designed to probe the answers given to primary questions.

Open questions: broad-based probes that ask the interviewee to provide perspective, ideas, information, or opinions as he or she wishes.

Closed questions: narrowly focused and require very brief (one- or two-word) answers.

Neutral questions: questions phrased in ways that do not direct a person’s answers.

3. Conduct the interview

Dress professionally, be prompt, and be courteous

Ask permission to record, listen carefully, and keep the interview moving

Monitor your nonverbal reactions

Get permission to quote

Confirm credentials, end on time, and thank the interviewee

4. Process the interview

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A Good Interview Involves…

© 2011 Cengage Learning

Rapport building (opener)

Primary questions

Secondary questions

Open questions

Closed questions

Neutral questions

Leading question

SEE Exhibit 6.1 (page 75) for sample interview questions

A Good Interview Involves the Following:

Build rapport

Primary questions lead-in question about one of the major topics of the interview, typically related to the main points for the speech

Secondary questions follow-up questions designed to probe the answers given to primary questions

Open questions broad-based questions that ask the interviewee to provide perspective, ideas, information, or opinions

Closed questions narrowly focused questions that require only very brief answers (yes/no)

Neutral questions are phrased n ways that do not direct a person’s answers

Leading questions are questions phrased in a way that suggests the interviewer has a preferred answer

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Identify & Select Relevant Information

© 2011 Cengage Learning

Factual statements

Statistics, examples, definitions

Expert opinions

Elaborations

Anecdotes and narratives

Comparisons and contrasts

Quotations

Factual statements are those that can be verified. Statistics are numerical facts. Examples are specific instances that illustrate or explain a general factual statement. A definition is a statement that clarifies the meaning of a word or phrase.

Expert opinions are interpretations and judgments made by authorities in a particular subject area. They can help explain what facts mean or put them in perspective.

Elaborations:

Anecdotes are brief, often amusing stories

Narratives are accounts, personal experiences, tales, or lengthier stories.

Comparisons illuminate a point by showing similarities

Contrasts highlight differences.

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Guidelines for Using Statistics

© 2011 Cengage Learning

Use only statistics you can verify to be reliable & valid

Use only recent statistics

Use statistics comparatively

Use statistics sparingly

Remember that statistics can be biased

Statistical statements can provide impressive support for a point, but when they are poorly used in a speech, they may be boring and, in some instances, downright deceiving. These guidelines can help you use statistics effectively and ethically.

Guidelines for Using Statistics

Use only statistics you can verify to be reliable and valid.

Use only recent statistics so your audience will not be misled.

Use statistics comparatively.

Use statistics sparingly.

Remember that statistics are biased.

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© 2011 Cengage Learning

Learn, compare, collect the facts!… Always have the courage to say to yourself – I am ignorant. ~ Ivan Petrovich Pavlov

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