Short Answer Questions The Mind And Body Connection Through The Lifespan

16 short answer questions, read through the file and you can see the questions and some answers from the textbook.

you will need to answer those questions with your own words, copy and paste will not be acceptable.

some of the answers might not thorough so you may need to add more information on your own .

you will have 5 hours to do it. i will need it before 5pm pst

2. Name & explain 1 of the explanations of biographical disruption (2 points)

3. What is the difference between loneliness and social isolation? (2 points) week3 20 21

Loneliness is a lack of intimacy, or a perception of lack, and dissatisfaction or unhappiness with a current relationship, while social isolation is a lack of contact with other people.


4. Explain two differences between the ‘Fight or Flight’ and ‘Tend and Befriend’ responses (2 points) week2 p7

5. Briefly explain the 3 stages within the GAS model of stress (3 points) week2 p13


7. Explain how ‘modern life’ can affect genetic predisposition towards stress (3 points)

week3 p20-21




9. Explain the HPA Axis’s role in depression. What happens to a depressed person’s stress response and how may this lead to maladaptive behaviors? Name the different kinds of cortisol curves a depressed person may have. Bio week4 10

11. Name two differences between emotion focussed and problem focussed coping (2 points) week2 p11

Emotion -focused coping is about changing the meaning of transactions, managing your performance, and focusing on your emotions rather than your current situation.

Problem focussed coping focus on undoing, repairing and preventing. By getting information, making changes, or escaping reality and making plans.


14. Name a late life risk factor for depression (1 point) week4 p27


15. What is the central aim of the stress response? (1 point)




17. What does nature vs nurture mean? (1 point) week3 p18

Nature is influenced by genes and other biological factors; Nurture refers to the influence of external factors, the result of life experience and continuous learning.

20. According to the DSM, name 3 of the syptoms that can form the diagnosis of depression (3 points) paul week4 10


21. In Alzheimer’s, we see certain pathologies. What are these two pathologies? How does stress impact these pathologies? Thinking along these lines, can you theorize as to why stress may also hasten the onset of Huntington’s disease which is caused by a mutated protein which leads to Huntington tangles?


Alzheimer’s Pathology

● Tau proteins play a role in stabilizing the cytoskeletons (cellular skeletons) of neurons

● AD is associated with defective tau proteins which cannot stabilize microtubules

● Phosphorylation is a process where a protein is modified by the attachment of a molecule containing phosphorus atoms

● Tau hyperphosphorylation is a hallmark of AD where tau proteins clump into neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs)

● Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a type of cell membrane protein concentrated in neuronal synapses

● Amyloid beta (Aβ) is an APP-related peptide (group of amino-acids) whose misfolding and aggregation gives rise to Aβ plaques


32. Walk me through what happens in PTSD with regards to brain anatomy. How does PTSD impact the stress response and what are some consequences? Week5 p6


33. What may account for the gender difference in the rate of depression diagnosis? (2 points) week4 p13


35. Why is loneliness something that we should be concerned about for older adults? (3 points) week6 p22

37. Break down the components of the HPA axis and their function in the biological stress response. Name the primary stress hormone(s) released and their function in the body. What happens to the HPA axis with chronic stress? Bioweek4 p4


Cortisol, the primary stress hormone, increases sugars (glucose) in the bloodstream, enhances your brain’s use of glucose and increases the availability of substances that repair tissues. Cortisol also curbs functions that would be nonessential or detrimental in a fight-or-flight situation.


40. Define epigenetics in the broadest sense. Describe to me the effects of methylation on the DNA in brief. How does this impact inherited genes? What does stress do to these methylation factors? What kind of events may lead to this kind of epigenetic change and how may that impact the offspring who inherit said epigenetics?

week 3, page 10-13 epigenetics” focuses on how DNA. is regulated to achieve those changes.

3.4DNA Methylation

●  A methyl group is a type of molecule containing the –CH3 group of atoms


●  DNA methylation is a process whereby methyl groups are added to DNA, thus changing DNA segment activity without changing the actual DNA sequence


●  DNA methylation is a powerful suppressor of gene transcription (the process whereby DNA is transcribed into RNA), which is the first step of protein synthesis


●  Abnormal levels of DNA methylation have been implicated in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) like atherosclerosis, and there is hope that DNA methylation measures could be used as early CVD biomarkers


●  There is a global loss of methylation in aging, and twin studies indicate that methylation rates diverge as a result of environmental factors