· Eileen Merced

I have no known conflict of interest to disclose.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Eileen Merced

Email:  emerced1@liberty.edu




Role of management, leadership and the effect of followers in the organization


In the organization is not only important to established a vision and mission, is also important for the organization to have the right personnel, management and leaders that will be able to drive companies’ strategy. From the CEO to upper and middle management, they have the responsibility to create, implement and adjust strategies as needed to be profitable and stay competitive. With the evolution of technology, the innovation of products, the change of customer and employees demand companies are seeking for new methods of management to be more efficient. Without human capital, organizations cannot exist. For generations, the concept of management was defined as employees that were responsible of managing a store, organization, school, hospital but then it was seen for many as leaders. Through the years the concept of management and leadership change and it has been seen as too different concept.

Role of Management

Management is the process used to accomplish organizational goals through planning, organizing, leading, and controlling people and other organizational resources (Nickel et al. 2020). Management includes the functions of planning, organizing, leading and controlling to achieve goals efficiently and effectively (Satterlee, 2018). Kearns (2006, as cited by Chua et al. 2016), therefore, without the support from top management, business strategies would not be executed effectively and efficiently (Kearns, 2006). Generally, companies’ structures are Board of Director, CEO, Top Management, Human Resource, and, lower to middle management. This structure also will depend of the size of the company. In small businesses and family businesses, the owner sometimes plays multiple roles.

However, it is good to mention that through the years and the changes that companies are facing specially after the COVID-19 pandemic companies are more focus in

innovate not only through the creation of new products, they are trying to innovate the way the manage their team and look for new methods to be more efficient and productive. According to Satterlee (2018), she said that management has four roles, planning, organizing, leading and, controlling and managers not only have to be knowledgeable and expert in these four areas they need to know the role and duties of the employees (p.5). Middle managers play a key role in an organization linking the strategic goals of top management to the implementation of these strategies by the lower-level employees (https://doi.org/10.1108/HRMID-06-2020-0162). Vugec (2020), owing to the change in global markets and knowing the importance of the business process in the organization, and the importance of management in practice organization needs to adapt to new conditions to stay competitive.


Over the years, words “leadership” and “management” have, in the organizational concept, been used both as synonyms and completely different definitions (Samosudova, 2017). Management and leadership are not synonymous, and both are needed for an organization to succeed (Satterlee, 2018). Marker (2010), a good manager, because of their power gets employees to do what he-she wants a good leader inspires others to want what he/she wants (p. 32). Effective leaders should be visionaries who are adaptable and have the ability to inspire others toward a collective goal (Cox, 2016). As well, you don’t need to be a manager or be in a higher position to be a leader. Leader as a difference of a manager that is focus in planning, organizing, leading and controlling, leader can be someone that believes in the company culture, that focus in motivate others to work toward the same goal, leader can be someone that is not a teacher always is motivating and checking on the students and support them as needed, leaders influence others.

Duey 7  to the different definition of leadership and management and due to the adaptation of the business to these concepts’ researcher classify leadership in two categories, transformational and charismatic leaders. Transformational leaders (TLs) motivate followers to commit themselves to organizational objectives and to realize performance outcomes, which excel beyond expectations (Steinman et al. 2018). Grabo and van Vugt (2016), a charismatic pioneer is a leader that regroups people of an organization and serve as a focal point, this one will serve as a central point. Using the context of evolutionary phycology Grabo and van Vugt (2016) define charismatic leadership as the ability of a leader to solve challenges in groups. Hence, groups will be able to work together (p.401).


The goal of an organization strives in have profitable sales, have an efficient execution of strategy, stay competitive among others, but the investment in internal environments like human capital and have a great management team and leaders will be crucial. Beyond that, having followers that will be able to promote company culture, followers that will be the voice of the company will be important. Satterlee (2018), a leader cannot lead without followers. Companies can offer a good salary and compensation plan but the job satisfaction, the internal environment, good leader and management team are the key which an employee makes the decision to follow his manager, be loyal and trust him/her. Back in history when God creates Men’s and Women, we can see the importance of leaders and their role and how followers follow Jesus after they saw what God was doing was good. 7 But Jesus withdrew himself with his disciples to the sea: and a great multitude from Galilee followed him, and from Judaea, 8 And from Jerusalem, and

https://kingjamesbibleonline.org. 34 Some of the people became followers of Paul and believed. Among them was Dionysius, a member of the Areopagus, also a woman named Damaris, and a number of others. (Acts 17:34, King James Bible Online. https://kingjamesbibleonline.org.

It is important in the organization that leaders engage with his/her followers. One of the main tasks for most leaders is interacting with their followers (Gattermann et al. 2017). Leaders need to be a role model of the company, do what is right and lead by example. Followers need to feel that they are valuable to their leader and to build that relationship leaders need to engage, motivate followers, build a relation of trust and keep the channel of communication open all the time .     Eileen Merced.docx   download

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Jason Storey

Jason Storey

TuesdayMay 18 at 3:04pm

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Leadership and Management


Jason C. Storey

School of Business, Liberty University







Author Note

Jason C. Storey

I have no known conflict of interest to disclose.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Jason C. Storey.

Email: Jstorey6@liberty.edu




Leadership and Management

Topic Title

The captain of a ship can cause great success or failure that can have broad and lasting impacts.  Reflect on the recent incident in the Suez Canal in which a shipping vessel blocked the canal, which resulted in global effects in supply chains.  What role did leadership or management have in the cause of the Sues Canal incident?  Management roles and responsibilities provide structure by focusing on areas including planning, organizing, leading, and controlling (Satterlee, 2018). Leadership is a function of a manager roles and responsibilities that has clear responsibility to help move a workforce towards a vision or purpose.  It is common to see roles such as product manager or strategy manager representing a degree of ownership and management that a position has over a category or area and doesn’t inherently imply a position of power over other employees.

The management role evolves and changes when it begins to incorporate direct reports (subordinates) and is no longer an individual contributor role.  This concept is not to say that leadership only exists in positions with direct reports, but rather the relationship moves from indirect to direct. Individual contributor roles still must exhibit leadership functions such as the ability to motivate or inspire someone to action. However, the relationship of that influence is indirect because individuals have no legitimate power in the form of hierarchy.

Three Concepts

Three distinct concepts surface that helps outline the roles of leadership and management in an organization.  Function, decision making, and skills are three concepts that help create a distinction between a leader and a manager. While leadership and management are not synonymous, they do have an interwoven and sometimes dependent relationship. This discussion post will provide a framework for understanding the concepts and help unwind the relationship between leadership and management.


The functional areas of responsibility for leadership and management help create a distinction between the two terms. A primary function of a leader in the development of talent on his/her team.  The role of a teacher is much from prevalent in the functional roles of a leader and looks to understand how to get the best out of their team.  At the core of a leader’s function is their ability to change behavior in a transactional or transformational manner.  While leadership, primarily transformational leadership, has been recognized for its immense ability to shift an organization’s focus, it does not go without its downfalls, including consuming too many organizational resources causing adverse impacts on the organization (Lin et al., 2019).

For this reason, it is crucial to understand that there is not a one size fits all leadership style or function.  As described in Satterlee (2018), manager functions include planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.  These functions are the bumpers that prevent an organization from going in the gutter for initiatives or day-to-day activities.  The roles of a manager are necessary to operationalize the concepts and motivation that come from effective leadership.

Decision Making

The resources and criteria that leaders and managers use in the decision-making process guide what factors to consider. The scope of impact of a decision is an essential factor and will generally grow more prominent as the organizational level increases.  Decision-making at higher organizational levels can require increased foresight and analysis.  In addition, decision-making at a strategic level generally relies on a greater degree of collaboration between functional groups.  For that reason, the level of leadership skill needed to perform at a high level in strategic decision-making increases. Moon (2021) emphasizes this point through research that showed that leaders with higher levels of emotional intelligence were more committed in the decision-making process, which was an essential factor in intelligent decision making.  Top-level executives rely less on being a subject matter expert on a topic but instead rely on synthesizing and interpreting information and evaluating that information against the organization’s mission or purpose.


One of the essential leadership skills is the ability for a leader to communicate with impact.    Communication skills and emotional intelligence have a positive relationship; therefore, as communication skills increase, an individual’s leadership skill can increase (Rauf et al., 2020). How a leader moves others to action through their words and ability to demonstrate emotional intelligence is a capstone to a successful leadership style.  A balanced delivery of a message that incorporates how an initiative will affect all stakeholders evolved will help subordinates understand how their actions correlate to the bigger picture.  The sense of purpose that effective communication can provide can instill pride in the work being completed regardless of the size of the role.

Biblical Integration

Servant leadership is often a buzzword used in resumes or job posting to help describe the leadership style an organization or an individual posse.  It is the most straightforward form of servant leadership; It can be described as a leadership style that’s primary objective of is to serve.  Paul the Apostle captures philosophy in Philippians 2:3 “Let nothing be done through strife or vainglory; but in lowliness of mind let each esteem other better than themselves.” (King James Bible, 1769/2017, Philippians 2:3). A servant leader’s purpose of helping others prosper through development, coaching, counseling, and motivation.  This purpose is not to be confused that a servant leader is simply a cheerleader but also is there to deliver a difficult message meant to inspire change with positive intention.


King James Bible. (2017). King James Bible Online. https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/ (Original work published 1769)

Lin, S.-H. (Joanna), Scott, B. A., & Matta, F. K. (2019). The Dark Side of Transformational Leader Behaviors for Leaders Themselves: A Conservation of Resources Perspective. Academy of Management Journal62(5), 1556–1582.  https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2016.1255

Moon, J. (2021). Effect of Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Styles on Risk Intelligent Decision Making and Risk Management. Journal of Engineering, Project & Production Management11(1), 71–81.  https://doi.org/10.2478/jeppm-2021-0008

Rauf, F. H. A., Khalid, F. M., Rahman, M. S. A., & Ghani, M. K. I. C. (2020). Leadership and Communication Skills towards Emotional Intelligence: A Case of a Malaysian Private University. Global Business & Management Research12(4), 647–654.

Satterlee, A. (2018). Principles of Management and Leadership: A Christian Perspective.