Literature review/research paper is a 4 page paper (not including the cover page and reference page) in which students must investigate a particular topic either in the textbook or assigned by the instructor that is related to the course objectives and conduct a review of the psychological literature. Based on the literature review, students are required to develop a thesis/theme and draw conclusions on the topic researched.
Below is the rubric that is used to grade your paper.
Your Topic is : PTSD
defintion , causes and effects how to maintain , etc.
please proof read and follow directions .
I also provided a sample from another student to help you.
The Correlation between Self-Confidence and Motivation 1
The Correlation between Self-Confidence and Motivation
The Correlation between Self-Confidence and Motivation 2
Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and its mental processes. The origins can
be traced back to Ancient Egypt and Greece as a subdivision of philosophy. It did not come into
its field of study until the 1870s. Having undergone many advancements in the field of study by
great minds like Socrates, Wilhelm Wundt, Sigmund Freud, and Ivan Pavlov. Psychological
studies have more relevance today and applications than at any time in recent history. The
present-day function of psychology today is providing people with the mental tools to handle the
psychological stresses people encounter daily. Creating a protective shell around people to ward
off potential emotional and psychical harm. This can help people by giving them an explanation
of their behavior and giving them better decision-making mechanics, stress management, and
how to predict future behavior patterns. Enable people to live fuller lives, having better
connections in relationships, be more motivated, and greater confidence (tegna2017, 2018).
Motivation is the desire to fulfill the provision of a goal. It’s critical in creating and
completing one’s objectives. It’s possible to influence our levels of motivation and discipline
according to research. Motivation can come from multiple sources and the reasoning behind our
motives can vary. You can be motivated by forces outside of yourself which is called extrinsic.
For example, you could have been motivated by the events of 9/11 to enlist in the armed forces
to defend your country from foreign invaders. People can also be motivated from within which
is called intrinsic which can be an even greater force and much more satisfying (Psychology
Today, 2020). One great example of understanding the different levels of motivation came from
Abraham Maslow in 1943 who invented the hierarchy of needs. The lowest level of the pyramid
is our most basic needs such as hunger, shelter, and avoiding uncomfortable environments. The
highest level is called Self-actualization “according to Maslow and other humanistic
psychologists, self-initiated striving to become what one is capable of being (Rathus, 2020).”
The Correlation between Self-Confidence and Motivation 3
The pinnacle of human achievements what we all strive to obtain whether we understand the
levels or not. However, the top is not static but a daily process that we go through starting anew
“Confidence is a belief in oneself, the conviction that one can meet life’s challenges and
to succeed – and the willingness to act accordingly (Psychology Today, 2020).” To be confident
is being grounded in a genuine understanding of what your abilities are and being settled in that
knowledge. This helps you make a good first impression, able to deal with stress, improve your
professional life, and gain integrity. Confidence is something that can be acquired, through
working on an area whether it be academia, sports, or a professional career by setting goals and
accomplishing them. In a social setting, confidence can be gained by learning and understanding
the social flow, then putting it into practice. Negative feelings such as anxiety and doubt can
lower your confidence. This can make you come across as having a lack of confidence and harm
your social or professional life. There is also coming across as overconfident which some can
interpret as being cocky or arrogant. It can go as far as becoming a narcissist which will make
most people want to avoid being around you (Psychology Today, 2020).
We have touched briefly on motivation and confidence, what they are, how do you get
them, and what their purpose is. However, is there a correlation between the two? Is one directly
affected by the other? One possible connection can be found in sports. A study was done in 2019
investigating the relationship between Self-confidence and motivation in high school students
who participated in sports. According to the study (Toktas & Bas, 2019) evidence showed the
more successful a student is in the sport the more positive the results will be and it can provide
them with a measure of self-satisfaction and self-confidence. In turn, they will have better
reactions to their environment and resonating with those around them. Results were better where
The Correlation between Self-Confidence and Motivation 4
they had positive support from coaches and teachers helping to build them up. This also can give
students who do not score high as other students in academics another avenue to gain skills and
talents which will increase their self-confidence. In the future, this will help the students be
happier and better decision-makers (Toktas & Bas, 2019).
There was another study done on a practical way to develop your confidence and
motivation. Our confidence can often be hindered by negative people and most commonly our
doubts and fears. According to Scott (2009), there is a 4-step process on how to build your
confidence and self-esteem. In this process, you first take note of your good qualities, abilities,
and accomplishments. Secondly, you recognize what qualities you want to build on and keep this
in mind as you do so. Thirdly you create an image of yourself as a successful person and being
acknowledged for those efforts. Finally, you see yourself as an affluent, overflowing person,
with all you want. This can be done by anyone with a piece of paper and a pen. Start by writing
down all your talents and your accomplishments. It’s important to remind yourself of these
things because it’s easy to forget them or be filled with self-doubt. This is an easy way to create a
positive mindset by focusing on the optimistic rather than the negative. A change of attitude can
greatly increase your confidence and make you feel more motivated to perform the required steps
to gain what you want. “By feeling you will get what you want, you will feel you deserve it and
will ask for it, and other people will agree you deserve it, too. (Scott, 2009).” You will be
manufacturing an air of confidence and enabling you to achieve your goals. When other people
give you acknowledgment this will also increase your self-esteem.
The level of our self-confidence can greatly affect how we perform certain tasks. Self-
confidence is your judgment of what you are capable of and is not a motivational perspective
alone. According to Kanfer (1990) motivation can be broken down into two workings: goal
The Correlation between Self-Confidence and Motivation 5
choice and self-regulation. Self-regulation can be further broken down into monitoring yourself,
evaluating yourself and your reactions. Being aware of how well you can accomplish a task is
important to your self-esteem. When we are constantly filled with questions about our ability, we
lose self-confidence. The more you are focused on did I make a mistake, or can someone else do
it better, and feeling you are not intelligent enough to complete the task will ultimately destroy
your confidence. (Druckman & Bjork, 1994).
Learning can also play a great role in our confidence making us more motivated in our
goal setting. According to Hicks (2016) taking a course in your field of expertise will help you
learn new things and rebuild your confidence. You can also learn things that are not directly
related but still apply to your daily life can also be a great tool. Knowledge is endless and you
will never reach a plateau where there is nothing else to learn. The goal is to never stop learning
and expand your horizons building a better you. The possibilities are endless, and the process of
learning will increase your sense of self-worth (Hicks, 2016).
From the most basic needs to a higher awareness of self and our self-assurance to pursue
the heights of human achievements, these two concepts are intertwined. Motivation fuels our
desire to pursue goals by attaining these goals we build confidence in ourselves to repeat the
accomplishment or chase higher aspirations. The evidence shows a strong correlation between
motivation and confidence, which hinges on success. Failure and negative forces whether from
internal or external sources cannot damage one and affect the other. However, you cannot have
one without the other, when you have the motive to follow the dream you have a measure of
belief that you can do it. Surround yourself with positive influences and successful people, never
giving in to failure you are on the road to be a highly motivated and self-confident individual.
The Correlation between Self-Confidence and Motivation 6
Druckman, D., & Bjork, R. A. (1994). 8 Self-Confidence and Performance. In D. Druckman, &
R. A. Bjork, Learning, Remembering: Enhancing Human Performance (pp. 173-174).
Washington D.C.: The National Academies Press. Retrieved from
Hicks, M. (2016, November 17). The Relationship Between Confidence and Productivity.
Retrieved from Productivityist: https://productivityist.com/confidence-and-productivity/
Psychology Today. (2020). Confidence. Retrieved from Psychology Today:
Psychology Today. (2020). Motivation. Retrieved from PsychologyToday:
Rathus, S. A. (2020). Psych, 6th Edition. Boston: Cengage.
Scott, G. (2009). Chapter 8: Increasing Your Confidence and Self-Esteem. In G. G. Scott, Want
It, See It, Get It!: Visualize Your Way to Success (pp. p85-111). American Management
tegna2017. (2018, March 7). The Important of Psychology in Today’s World. Retrieved from
University of the District of Columbia: https://www.udc.edu/
Toktas, S., & Bas, M. (2019). Investigation of the Relationship between the Self-confidence and
Motivation of High School Students Participating School Sport Contests. Universal
Journal of Educational Research, 472-479.