Reflection Paper/ Psychology
Write a reflection paper about what you have learned (from power point attached which is topic from psychology chapter “Motivation and Motion”) and that you have applied to your personal life. It is not a summary of the chapters. Please apply something from life.
It should be a word document with 3,000 words.
Motivation and emotion
Kristin C. Flora Ph.D., Franklin College
Meet Ivonne: United States paralympian
Ivonne has been a fighter all her life.
At age 2, doctors removed both eyes to stop the spread of an aggressive cancer.
After graduating college, Ivonne took up running, turning herself into a world-class runner and triathlete.
In Rio, Ivonne earned 6th place in the 1500 meter run.
Other notable accomplishments include speaking 4 languages, climbing mountains, and earning a graduate degree in business.
Motivation: Part 1
Motivation: a stimulus that can direct behavior, thinking, and feeling
Motivation: Part 2
Motivation and Learning Theory
Positive reinforcers: stimuli that, when added, increase the likelihood of future behavior
Negative reinforcers: stimuli that, when taken away, increase the likelihood of future behavior
Incentive: an association established between a behavior and its consequences, which then motivates that behavior
Motivation: Part 3
The drive or urge to continue a behavior because of internal reinforcers
Examples: personal satisfaction, interest, mastery
The drive or urge to continue a behavior because of external reinforcers
Examples: money, grades, food, traffic tickets
Can undermine intrinsic motivation when we reward an activity with external reinforcers
Put your heads together 9.1
Imagine you are a psychology instructor and your goal is to motivate students to perform better on exams. Team up and discuss
extrinsic motivation strategies you could implement, and
ways to encourage intrinsic motivation.
Which would be more effective in the long term?
Theories of motivation: Part 1
Instincts: complex behaviors that are fixed, unlearned, and consistent within a species
Early theorists, influenced by Darwin, proposed that human behavior is motivated by various instincts.
Little evidence to support this theory
Evolutionary perspective suggests evolutionary forces influence behavior.
Example: fear of heights may have evolved to protect us from danger
Theories of motivation: Part 2
Homeostasis: the tendency for bodies to maintain constant states through internal controls
Homeostasis is the basis for motivation.
Behaviors are driven by the process of fulfilling basic needs.
If a need is not fulfilled, it creates a drive, or a state of tension that motivates behavior to restore equilibrium.
Theories of motivation: Part 3
Humans (and perhaps other primates) seek an optimal level of arousal, as not all motivation stems from physical needs.
Arousal can be a product of anxiety, surprise, excitement, interest, fear, and many other emotions.
Some people are sensation seekers.
High heritability of this trait (58%–67%)
Can decrease later in adolescence
Not all bad — has been linked to greater tolerance of stressful events
Theories of motivation: Part 4
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
A continuum of needs that are universal and ordered in terms of the strength of their associated drives
Love and belongingness needs
Ivonne (center) with her family. Even in nursery school, Ivonne appeared to be motivated by esteem needs. She was self-directed, confident, and commanded respect from others.
Hierarchy of needs
Theories of motivation: Part 5
Maslow’s Hierarchy: Exceptions to the Rule
Sequence not set in stone
Physiological needs sometimes abandoned to meet self-actualization needs
Safety needs may be relegated to pursue self-transcendence needs
Breaking Fast Iraqi families gather for Iftar, the evening meal eaten after the daytime fast. During the holy month of Ramadan, Muslims deny themselves food, water, tobacco, and chewing gum from dawn to dusk. “As defined in the Qur’an, fasting is a strict practice of deep personal worship in which Muslims seek the highest level of awareness of the Divine” (Ilias, Tayeh, & Pachoundakis, 2016, p. 147). Here, basic needs (food and water) are put on hold for something more transcendent.
Theories of motivation: Part 6
Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan)
Humans are born with three universal needs, which are always driving us in the direction of growth and optimal functioning.
Need for competence: reaching goals through mastery of day-to-day responsibilities
Need for relatedness: creating meaningful and lasting relationships
Need for autonomy: managing behavior to reach personal goals
Theories of motivation: Part 7
Need for Achievement (Murray)
One of 20 fundamental needs
A drive to reach attainable and challenging goals, especially in the face of competition
We seek situations that provide opportunities for satisfying this need
Need for Power (McClelland et al.)
A drive to control or influence others
Enjoy dominating others but hate being dominated
Put your heads together 9.2
Pick a media report describing a famous person’s behavior.
Apply different theories of motivation to explain their actions.
Social media and psychology
Social media can either intensify or reduce feelings of loneliness, depending on the platforms that are used and activity level.
Image-based platforms linked to reduced loneliness
Active Facebook use strengthens relationships
Passive Facebook use diminishes positive emotion
Sexuality: Part 1
“Sex may be studied as a purely physiological need,” according to Maslow (1943), “[but] ordinarily sexual behavior is multi-determined” (p. 381).
Sexuality: a dimension of human nature encompassing everything that makes us sexual beings: sexual activities, attitudes, and behaviors
William Masters and Virginia Johnson are the pioneers of sexuality research.
Sexuality: Part 2
Human sexual response cycle
10,000 distinct sexual responses of 312 male and 382 female participants (Masters & Johnson, 1966)
Men and women follow a similar cycle; duration differs across individuals.
Men enter a refractory period where they are unable to obtain another orgasm.
Women do not enter a refractory period and can have multiple orgasms.
Masters and Johnson’s Human Sexual Response Cycle
Sexuality: Part 3
Sexual orientation: a person’s enduring sexual attraction to individuals of the same sex, opposite sex, or both sexes
Sexual orientation can also be described as a continuum that includes many dimensions of our sexuality, including attraction, desire, and emotions.
Sexuality: Part 4
How does sexual orientation develop?
Twin studies and family pedigree studies suggest there is a genetic component for sexual orientation.
Same-sex sexual behavior heritability rates are lower for women than men.
Early in utero exposure to high levels of androgens may be associated with homosexual orientation in women.
Fraternal birth order effect — having older brothers — is associated with homosexuality in men.
Maternal immunity hypothesis
Sexuality: Part 5
The role of nurture in sexual orientation
From a continuum perspective, many people fall in between strictly heterosexual and strictly homosexual.
Because we live in a homomisic society, most people in the middle will be pushed toward a heterosexual orientation.
Children raised in same-sex households are not disadvantaged; in fact, one study found that teens raised by lesbian mothers tended to score higher on measures of self-esteem and had fewer behavioral problems.
Sexuality: Part 6
A history of unfair treatment
Targets of stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination
Continue to be targeted today with policies to exclude transgender individuals from military service and failure to be protected by federal law from workplace discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation
What is your opinion on these recent changes to policy?
Sexuality: Part 7
Gathering sex data
Alfred Kinsey and colleagues were among the first to try to scientifically and objectively examine the sexual behavior of Americans.
Key findings: both men and women masturbated, and participants had experiences with premarital sex, adultery, and sexual activity with someone of the same sex
Limitations included a lack of a representative sample
Sexuality: Part 8
|Sexual Activity||Average Frequency in Prior Month for Men||Average Frequency in Prior Month for Women|
How do men and women differ in sexual behavior?
Sexuality: Part 9
Think Critically: Sext You Later
Sexting: text messages with sexually explicit words or images
20% of high school students have used their cell phones to share sexual pictures of themselves
Twice as many have received images from others
Risks associated with sexting
Young people who sext are more likely to have sex and take sexual risks
When sexting is between two consenting adults, it may be completely harmless (provided no infidelity is involved).
Problems with sex: Part 1
Sexual dysfunction: a significant disturbance in the ability to respond sexually or to gain pleasure from sex
43% of women and 31% of men suffer from some sort of sexual dysfunction (Laumann, Paik, & Rosen, 1999)
Can be temporary or long-term
Problems with sex: Part 2
Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs): diseases or illnesses transmitted through sexual activity
Bacterial — can be treated with antibiotics
Examples: syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia
Viral — no cure, only treatments to reduce symptoms
Examples: genital herpes, human papillomavirus (HPV)
The more sexual partners you have, the greater your risk of acquiring an STI
Best bet is to play it safe and use protection
Hunger: Part 1
Cannon and Washburn (1912)
The stomach plays a role in hunger.
Blood sugar and hunger
When glucose levels dip, the stomach and liver send signals to the brain, initiating hunger.
Hypothalamus and hunger
Leptin: secreted by fat cells and is involved in suppressing hunger
Insulin: secreted by the pancreas and is involved in controlling glucose levels in the bloodstream
Hunger: Part 2
Cultural and Social Context
People tend to match food intake to those around them.
Naturalistic observation studies have found that women choose lower-calorie meals or eat less when trying to impress others.
When we are exposed to images of large food portions, it tends to “recalibrate perceptions of what is a ‘normal’ serving of that food” (Robinson et al., 2016, p. 32).
Hunger: Part 3
Approximately 37% of men and 38% of women are overweight or obese (BMI of 25+ or 30+ respectively).
One-third of America’s children and teens are overweight, and around 13% of American children are considered obese.
Set point: the stable weight that is maintained despite variability in exercise and food intake
Critics say this model downplays the importance of social and environmental influences.
Perhaps settling point is more accurate?
Hunger: Part 4
Overeating, Sleep, and Screen Time
Negative correlation between sleep and weight gain
Positive correlation between screen time and weight gain
The Secret to Slimming Down?
Eat less, move more
Even those who opt for surgery must adhere to a healthy lifestyle
Photo: NBC Today weather anchor Al Roker before (left) and after his 2002 gastric bypass surgery. The procedure, which reduces the volume of the stomach and changes the way food is absorbed by the digestive system, helps people lose weight and may lead to improvements in cardiovascular health (Adams et al., 2012; Medline Plus, 2015, March 31).
Weight loss: Making it fit
|Set realistic goals.||Set goals and expectations that are specific, realistic, and flexible.|
|Get regular exercise.||Exercising just 30 minutes a day 5 times a week can help with weight loss. Add a variety of physical activities to your daily routines.|
|Eat regularly and track intake.||Eat on a set schedule to minimize mindless eating. Eat only when hungry, and write down what and how much you consume in a food diary.|
|Control portions.||Watch your portions. This is the amount you decide to eat. Read labels to determine the recommended serving size.|
|Drink water.||Eliminate sweetened beverages like soda.|
|Join a weight loss support group.||Social support helps promote healthier coping strategies and introduces accountability.|
Emotion: Part 1
A psychological state that includes a subjective or inner experience, physiological component, and behavioral expression
Initiated by a stimulus
Likely to motivate action
Longer-term emotional states that are less intense than emotions
Do not appear to have distinct beginnings or ends
Emotion: Part 2
Language and Emotion
The English language contains 200 words to describe emotions.
Words and emotions do not correspond directly, but they are linked.
Valence — pleasant or unpleasant
Arousal — how active, excited, or involved one is
Theories of emotion: Part 1
James–Lange Theory of Emotion
Suggests that a stimulus initiates the experience of a physiological and/or behavioral reaction, and this reaction leads to the feeling of an emotion
Each emotion has a distinct physiological fingerprint
Criticisms of the theory
People who cannot feel physiological reactions can still experience emotions
Speed of emotion is faster than physiological changes
When physiological functioning is altered, emotions do not necessarily change
Theories of emotion: Part 2
Cannon–Bard Theory of Emotion
Suggests that environmental stimuli are the starting point for emotions, and physiological or behavioral responses occur at the same time emotions are felt
Sensory neurons are activated and information is passed to the thalamus where it splits, going to the cortex and the limbic system
The cortex is responsible for the perception and the limbic system activates a physiological and behavioral response
Criticisms of the theory
The thalamus might not be capable of carrying out this processing on its own
Theories of emotion: Part 3
A diver comes face-to-face with a crocodile while swimming off the coast of Quintana Roo, Mexico. If you were this unlucky diver, what would you experience first: the emotion of fear, a physiological response (increased heart rate), or a behavioral reaction (flinching)?
The Cannon–Bard theory of emotion suggests that all these events would occur simultaneously.
Theories of emotion: Part 4
Schachter–Singer Theory of Emotion
The experience of emotion is the result of physiological arousal, followed by a cognitive label for this physiological state
If you experience physiological arousal but don’t know why it has occurred, you will label the arousal and explain your feelings based on your “knowledge” of the environment and previous experiences
Criticisms of the theory
Overstates the link between physiological arousal and the experience of emotion
People can experience an emotion without labeling it
Theories of emotion: Part 5
Lazarus and the Cognitive Appraisal Approach
Suggests that the appraisal or interpretation of interactions with surroundings causes an emotional reaction
Emotions are adaptive because they help us cope with our surroundings.
Criticisms of the theory
We can experience emotions without interpreting environmental circumstances (Zajonc, 1984)
Emotions can precede thoughts and may even cause them
Summary: Theories of emotion
Believe it or not: Polygraph tests
The polygraph is a machine that attempts to determine if someone is lying by measuring aspects of physiological arousal presumed to be associated with deceit.
PROBLEM: Biological signs of anxiety do not always go hand-in-hand with deception.
PROBLEM: Some people can lie without feeling distress.
fMRI may be better, but accuracy and validity have been questioned.
Theories of emotion: Part 6
Darwin suggested the ability to read facial expressions is an innate characteristic that has evolved because it promotes survival.
If facial expressions are truly innate and universal, then people from all cultures ought to interpret them in the same way.
Sample consisted of New Guinea indigenous people
Results indicated that the same facial expressions represent the same basic emotions across cultures.
Put your heads together 9.3
Take out a piece of paper and sketch faces (or emojis) demonstrating happiness, sadness, disgust, anger, surprise, and fear. Compare your faces with others. Describe the similarities. Are there many differences?
Theories of emotion: Part 7
Display rules: framework or guidelines for when, how, and where an emotion is expressed
Some general differences across individualistic and collectivist cultures
These differences are taught early in life, through socialization (e.g., parenting, schooling)
Further work needed on how expressions of specific emotions (not emotions in general) are influenced by cultural values
How do display rules govern your emotions? Can you think of how you learned these “rules”?
Theories of emotion: Part 8
Does Smiling Make You Happy?
Facial feedback hypothesis: the facial expression of an emotion can affect the experience of that emotion
Put your pen or pencil between your teeth for 30 seconds. How are you feeling?
Next put your pen or pencil between your lips for 30 seconds; make sure it doesn’t touch your teeth. How are you feeling?
Using the facial feedback hypothesis, explain your emotional state across the two conditions.
Types of emotions: Part 1
Basic emotions — people all over the world experience and express them in similar ways
Believed to be innate and have an underlying neural basis
Types of emotions: Part 2
The Biology of Fear
The amygdala, an almond-shaped structure in the limbic system, is central to our experience of fear.
Two pathways to fear
Direct: thalamus amygdala
Allows the body and brain respond to danger without awareness
Indirect: thalamus amygdala cortex
Allow us to evaluate more complex threats and issue a false alarm
Types of emotions: Part 3
Flow: feeling completely absorbed in a challenging task, guided by a focus so intense that everything else, including the past and future, fades from awareness
Prerequisite for happiness
What activities put you in a flow state?
Flow is somewhat contagious.
Types of emotions: Part 4
The Biology of Happiness
Heritability estimates are between 35% and 50%, and as high as 80% in longitudinal studies (Bartels, 2015; Nes, Czajkowski, & Tambs, 2010)
A happiness set point
We become habituated to events and objects that make us feel happy rather quickly.
Spending time with loved ones
Pathways to happiness
Going to college
Being kind and generous
Counting your blessings
Buying new stuff
Becoming a millionaire
Moving your body
The more rituals the merrier
From the pages of Scientific American
In a series of studies published in the Journal of the Association for Consumer Research, hundreds of online subjects described rituals they performed with their families during holidays.
Those who performed collective rituals felt closer to their families, which made the holidays more interesting, which in turn made them more enjoyable.
Types of rituals didn’t matter, but number of rituals did.
These findings are correlational. What cautions do we need to take in interpreting the findings?
Put your heads together 9.4
Can money buy happiness? Team up and
discuss how money influences happiness.
How would your group spend $200 to increase the happiness of each member?
How would you spend $2,000?
Compare your answers with those of other groups.
In a good place
Ivonne is in a good place and attributes that to her faith.
Ivonne feels happiest when running, noting how her breathing connects her to nature.