Psychology ( Child Development)

The journal writing is based on the readings of the chapter , reading chapters for this week are (chapter 7 and 8 book is attached). You can pick a topic from chapter 7 or 8 and expand your thoughts based on questions asked below. On your papers include the typed questions before your response.  Answers must be typed and double-spaced with 1” margins on all four sides and 12 pt font. Make sure to use in text citation.  Answer all the questions below. 

  1. Identify one important concept, research finding, theory, or idea in the current module and briefly describe it.
  2. Describe why you think this is an important concept.
  3. What possible research could be added to your concept?
  4. Describe how this relates to your life.

develop How Children

Robert Siegler Judy DeLoache Nancy Eisenberg Jenny Saffran

F o u r t h E d i t i o n

This is an exciting time in the field of child development. The past decade has brought new theories, new ways of thinking, new areas of research, and innumerable new findings to the field. We originally wrote How Children Develop to describe this ever improving body of knowledge of children and their development and to convey our excitement about the progress that is being made in understanding the developmental process. We are pleased to continue this endeavor with the publication of the Fourth Edition of How Children Develop. —From the Preface

As new research expands the field’s understanding of child and adolescent development, the authors of How Chil- dren Develop continue their commitment to bringing the story of today’s developmental science to the classroom in a clear and memorable way. Joined in this Fourth Edition by Jenny Saffran of the University of Wisconsin–Madison, they maintain their signature emphasis on the “Seven Classic Themes” of development, which facilitates students’ understanding by highlighting the fundamental questions posed by investigators past and present. The new and ex- panded coverage in the Fourth Edition spans a wide range of topics—from broad areas like the epigenetic aspects of development, the links between brain function and behavior, and the pervasive influence of culture to specific subjects such as the mechanisms of infants’ learning, the effects of math anxiety, and the rapidly growing influence of social media in children’s and adolescents’ lives. This edition also features the highly anticipated debut of Launch- Pad, an online learning system that features Worth Publishers’ celebrated video collection; the full e-Book of How Children Develop; and the LearningCurve quizzing system, which offers students instant feedback on their learning.

Learn more about and request access at www.worthpublishers.com/launchpad.

Order How Children Develop, Fourth Edition, with LaunchPad at no additional cost by using ISBN 10: 1-4641-8284-1 / ISBN-13: 978-1-4641-8284-6.

Coverage of contemporary developmental science is very important to me. I prefer a text that describes the relevant research and is updated regularly. I find How Children Develop to be very good in this area, as all of the authors are primarily researchers.

—Jeffery Gagne, University of Texas at Arlington

I highly recommend this textbook. The main strengths are up-to-date research with clear descriptions of study methods and findings as well as excellent real-world examples that get students interested in a topic so that they are excited enough to read about the research and evidence that support real-world developmental phenomenon. I do not think the text has a major weakness.

—Katherine O’Doherty, Bowdoin College

Since its inception, I think that How Children Develop is the best child development textbook available. I would not hesitate to use it again in my classes.

—Richard Lanthier, George Washington University

www.worthpublishers.com

Cover art: Football, Bentota, Sri Lanka, 1998 (oil on canvas) ©Andrew Macara / Private Collection / The Bridgeman Art Library

develop H

o w

C h

ild ren

W O R T H

F o u r t h E d i t i o n

Siegler DeLoache Eisenberg

Saffran

 

 

this page intentionally left blank

 

 

develop How Children

 

 

this page intentionally left blank

 

 

develop How Children

F o u r t h E d i t i o n

Robert Siegler Carnegie Mellon University

Judy DeLoache University of Virginia

Nancy Eisenberg Arizona State University

Jenny Saffran University of Wisconsin–Madison

And Campbell Leaper, University of California–Santa Cruz, reviser of Chapter 15: Gender Development

 

 

This is dedicated to the ones we love

Senior Vice President, Editorial and Production: Catherine Woods

Publisher: Kevin Feyen

Senior Acquisitions Editor: Daniel DeBonis

Development Editor: Peter Deane

Assistant Editor: Nadina Persaud

Executive Marketing Manager: Katherine Nurre

Associate Director of Market Research: Carlise Stembridge

Executive Media Editor: Rachel Comerford

Media Editor: Lauren Samuelson

Associate Media Editor: Anthony Casciano

Director of Development for Print and Digital Products: Tracey Kuehn

Associate Managing Editor: Lisa Kinne

Senior Project Editor: Vivien Weiss

Production Manager: Sarah Segal

Art Director: Barbara Reingold

Senior Designer: Kevin Kall

Cover Designer: Diana Andrews

Interior Text Designer: Lissi Sigillo

Photo Editor: Bianca Moscatelli

Photo Researcher: Elyse Rieder

Art Manager: Matt McAdams

Illustrations: Todd Buck Illustration; Precision Graphics; TSI Graphics, Inc.; MPS Ltd.

Composition: Northeastern Graphic

Printing and Binding: Quad/Graphics, Versailles

Library of Congress Control Number: 2013952245

ISBN-10: 1-4292-4231-0

ISBN-13: 978-1-4292-4231-8

© 2014, 2011, 2006, 2003 by Worth Publishers

All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

First printing

Worth Publishers

41 Madison Avenue

New York, NY 10010

www.worthpublishers.com

 

 

about the authors: Robert Siegler is the Teresa Heinz Professor of Cognitive Psychology at Carnegie Mellon University. He is author of the cognitive development textbook Children’s Thinking and has written or edited several additional books on child development. His books have been translated into Japanese, Chinese, Korean, Spanish, French, Greek, Hebrew, and Portuguese. In the past few years, he has presented keynote addresses at the conventions of the Cognitive Development Society, the International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development, the Japanese Psychological Association, the Eastern Psychological Association, the American Psychological Society, and the Conference on Human Development. He also has served as Associate Editor of the journal Developmental Psychology, co-edited the cognitive development volume of the 2006 Handbook of Child Psychology, and served on the National Mathematics Advisory Panel from 2006 to 2008. Dr. Siegler received the American Psychological Association’s Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award in 2005, was elected to the National Academy of Education in 2010, and was named Director of the Siegler Center for Innovative Learning at Beijing Normal University in 2012.

Judy DeLoache is the William R. Kenan Jr. Professor of Psychology at the University of Virginia. She has published extensively on aspects of cognitive development in infants and young children. Dr. DeLoache has served as President of the Developmental Division of the American Psychological Association, as President of the Cognitive Development Society, and as a member of the executive board of the International Society for the Study of Infancy. She has presented major invited addresses at professional meetings, including the Association for Psychological Science and the Society for Research in Child Development. Dr. DeLoache is the holder of a Scientific MERIT Award from the National Institutes of Health, and her research is also funded by the National Science Foundation. She has been a visiting fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences in Palo Alto, California, and at the Rockefeller Foundation Study Center in Bellagio, Italy. She is a Fellow of the National Academy of Arts and Sciences. In 2013, she received the Distinguished Research Contributions Award from the Society for Research in Child Development and the William James Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research from the Association for Psychological Science.

Nancy Eisenberg is Regents’ Professor of Psychology at Arizona State University. Her research interests include social, emotional, and moral development, as well as so- cialization influences, especially in the areas of self-regulation and adjustment. She has published numerous empirical studies, as well as books and chapters on these topics. She has also been editor of Psychological Bulletin and the Handbook of Child Psychology and was the founding editor of the Society for Research in Child Development journal Child Development Perspectives. Dr. Eisenberg has been a recipient of Research Scientist Development Awards and a Research Scientist Award from the National Institutes of Health (NICHD and NIMH). She has served as President of the Western Psychological Association and of Division 7 of the American Psychological Association and is president- elect of the Association for Psychological Science. She is the 2007 recipient of the Ernest R. Hilgard Award for a Career Contribution to General Psychology, Division 1, American Psychological Association; the 2008 recipient of the International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award; the 2009 re- cipient of the G. Stanley Hall Award for Distinguished Contribution to Developmental Psychology, Division 7, American Psychological Association; and the 2011 William James

 

 

vi

Fellow Award for Career Contributions in the Basic Science of Psychology from the Association for Psychological Science.

Jenny R. Saffran is the College of Letters & Science Distinguished Professor of Psychology at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, and an investigator at the Waisman Center. Her research is focused on learning in infancy and early childhood, with a particular focus on language. Dr. Saffran currently holds a MERIT award from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. She has been the recipient of numerous awards for her scientific research, including the Boyd McCandless Award from the American Psychological Association for early career contributions to developmental psychology, and the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers from the National Science Foundation.

 

 

vii

Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx

1 An Introduction to Child Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

2 Prenatal Development and the Newborn Period . . . . . . . . . . . 39

3 Biology and Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

4 Theories of Cognitive Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

5 Seeing, Thinking, and Doing in Infancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

6 Development of Language and Symbol Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

7 Conceptual Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259

8 Intelligence and Academic Achievement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297

9 Theories of Social Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339

10 Emotional Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383

11 Attachment to Others and Development of Self . . . . . . . . . . 425

12 The Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467

13 Peer Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509

14 Moral Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553

15 Gender Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 593

16 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 637

Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-1

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-1

Name Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NI-1

Subject Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SI-1

brief contents:

 

 

viii

Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx

Chapter 1 An Introduction to Child Development . . . . . . 1

Reasons to Learn About Child Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Raising Children 3 Choosing Social Policies 4 Understanding Human Nature 6 Review 7

Historical Foundations of the Study of Child Development . . . . . . . . 7 Early Philosophers’ Views of Children’s Development 8 Social Reform Movements 9 Darwin’s Theory of Evolution 9 The Beginnings of Research-Based Theories of Child Development 10 Review 10

Enduring Themes in Child Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1 . Nature and Nurture: How Do Nature and Nurture Together Shape

Development? 10 2 . The Active Child: How Do Children Shape Their Own

Development? 12 3 . Continuity/Discontinuity: In What Ways Is Development Continuous,

and in What Ways Is It Discontinuous? 13 4 . Mechanisms of Development: How Does Change Occur? 16 5 . The Sociocultural Context: How Does the Sociocultural Context

Influence Development? 17 6 . Individual Differences: How Do Children Become So Different

from One Another? 20 7 . Research and Children’s Welfare: How Can Research Promote

Children’s Well-Being? 21 Review 22

Methods for Studying Child Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 The Scientific Method 23 Contexts for Gathering Data About Children 25 Correlation and Causation 28 Designs for Examining Development 32 Ethical Issues in Child-Development Research 35 Review 36

contents:

 

 

ix

Chapter 2 Prenatal Development and the Newborn Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

Prenatal Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Box 2.1: A Closer look Beng Beginnings 41

Conception 42 Box 2.2: Individual differences The First—and Last—Sex Differences 44

Developmental Processes 45 Box 2.3: A Closer look Phylogenetic Continuity 46

Early Development 47 An Illustrated Summary of Prenatal Development 48 Fetal Behavior 51 Fetal Experience 52 Fetal Learning 54 Hazards to Prenatal Development 56

Box 2.4: Applications Face Up to Wake Up 61

Review 66

The Birth Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Diversity of Childbirth Practices 68 Review 69

The Newborn Infant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 State of Arousal 70 Negative Outcomes at Birth 74

Box 2.5: Applications Parenting a Low-Birth-Weight Baby 78

Review 81

Chapter 3 Biology and Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

Nature and Nurture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Genetic and Environmental Forces 88

Box 3.1: Applications Genetic Transmission of Disorders 94

Behavior Genetics 99 Box 3.2: Individual differences Identical Twins Reared Apart 101

Review 105

Brain Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Structures of the Brain 106 Developmental Processes 109

Box 3.3: A Closer look Mapping the Mind 110

The Importance of Experience 114 Brain Damage and Recovery 117 Review 118

The Body: Physical Growth and Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Growth and Maturation 119

 

 

x

Nutritional Behavior 121 Review 126

Chapter 4 Theories of Cognitive Development . . . . . . . 129

Piaget’s Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 View of Children’s Nature 132 Central Developmental Issues 133 The Sensorimotor Stage (Birth to Age 2 Years) 135 The Preoperational Stage (Ages 2 to 7) 138 The Concrete Operational Stage (Ages 7 to 12) 141 The Formal Operational Stage (Age 12 and Beyond) 141 Piaget’s Legacy 142

Box 4.1: Applications Educational Applications of Piaget’s Theory 143

Review 144

Information-Processing Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 View of Children’s Nature 146 Central Developmental Issues 147

Box 4.2: Applications Educational Applications of Information-Processing Theories 154

Review 155

Sociocultural Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 View of Children’s Nature 156 Central Developmental Issues 158 Review 160

Box 4.3: Applications Educational Applications of Sociocultural Theories 161

Dynamic-Systems Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 View of Children’s Nature 163 Central Development Issues 165

Box 4.4: Applications Educational Applications of Dynamic-Systems Theories 166

Review 167

Chapter 5 Seeing, Thinking, and Doing in Infancy . . . . . 171

Perception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Vision 173

Box 5.1: A Closer look Infants’ Face Perception 176

Box 5.2: A Closer look Picture Perception 183

Auditory Perception 182 Taste and Smell 186 Touch 186 Intermodal Perception 186 Review 188

 

 

xi

Motor Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Reflexes 189 Motor Milestones 190 Current Views of Motor Development 191

Box 5.3: A Closer look “The Case of the Disappearing Reflex” 192

The Expanding World of the Infant 192 Box 5.4: Applications A Recent Secular Change in Motor Development 195

Box 5.5: A Closer look “Gangway—I’m Coming Down” 196

Review 198

Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 Habituation 199 Perceptual Learning 199 Statistical Learning 200 Classical Conditioning 201 Instrumental Conditioning 201 Observational Learning/Imitation 202 Rational Learning 204 Review 205

Cognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Object Knowledge 206 Physical Knowledge 207 Social Knowledge 208 Looking Ahead 211 Review 211

Chapter 6 Development of Language and Symbol Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

Language Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 The Components of Language 217 What Is Required for Language? 218

Box 6.1: Applications Two Languages Are Better Than One 222

The Process of Language Acquisition 224 Box 6.2: Individual differences The Role of Family and School Context in Early Language Development 235

Box 6.3: Applications: iBabies: Technology and Language Learning 240

Theoretical Issues in Language Development 246 Box 6.4: A Closer look: “I Just Can’t Talk Without My Hands” What Gestures Tell Us About Language 248

Box 6.5: Individual differences Developmental Language Disorders 251

Review 252

Nonlinguistic Symbols and Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 Using Symbols as Information 253 Drawing 254 Review 256

 

 

xii

Chapter 7 Conceptual Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259

Understanding Who or What . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 Dividing Objects into Categories 261 Knowledge of Other People and Oneself 266

Box 7.1: Individual differences Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) 270

Box 7.2: Individual differences Imaginary Companions 273

Knowledge of Living Things 273 Review 278

Understanding Why, Where, When, and How Many . . . . . . . . . . . 278 Causality 279

Box 7.3: A Closer look Magical Thinking and Fantasy 282

Space 283 Time 286 Number 288 Relations Among Understanding of Space, Time, and Number 292 Review 293

Chapter 8 Intelligence and Academic Achievement . . . 297

What Is Intelligence? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299 Intelligence as a Single Trait 299 Intelligence as a Few Basic Abilities 299 Intelligence as Numerous Processes 300 A Proposed Resolution 300 Review 301

Measuring Intelligence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 The Contents of Intelligence Tests 302 The Intelligence Quotient (IQ) 304 Continuity of IQ Scores 305

Box 8.1: Individual differences Gifted Children 306

Review 306

IQ Scores as Predictors of Important Outcomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 Review 308

Genes, Environment, and the Development of Intelligence . . . . . . . 308 Qualities of the Child 309 Influence of the Immediate Environment 310 Influence of Society 313

Box 8.2: Applications: A Highly Successful Early Intervention: The Carolina Abecedarian Project 318

Review 320

Alternative Perspectives on Intelligence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 Review 322

 

 

xiii

Acquisition of Academic Skills: Reading, Writing, and Mathematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322

Reading 322 Box 8.3: Individual differences Dyslexia 326

Writing 328 Mathematics 330 Mathematics Anxiety 334

Box 8.4: Applications Mathematics Disabilities 335

Review 335

Chapter 9 Theories of Social Development . . . . . . . . . 339

Psychoanalytic Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341 View of Children’s Nature 342 Central Developmental Issues 342 Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual Development 342 Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development 345 Current Perspectives 347 Review 348

Learning Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348 View of Children’s Nature 349 Central Developmental Issues 349 Watson’s Behaviorism 349 Skinner’s Operant Conditioning 350 Social Learning Theory 352

Box 9.1: A Closer look Bandura and Bobo 352

Current Perspectives 355 Review 356

Theories of Social Cognition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 View of Children’s Nature 356 Central Developmental Issues 356 Selman’s Stage Theory of Role Taking 357 Dodge’s Information-Processing Theory of Social Problem Solving 357 Dweck’s Theory of Self-Attributions and Achievement Motivation 359 Current Perspectives 361 Review 361

Ecological Theories of Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 View of Children’s Nature 362 Central Developmental Issues 362 Ethological and Evolutionary Theories 362 The Bioecological Model 366

Box 9.2: Individual differences Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 370

Box 9.3: Applications Preventing Child Abuse 373

Current Perspectives 378 Review 379

 

 

xiv

Chapter 10 Emotional Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . 383

The Development of Emotions in Childhood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 385 Theories on the Nature and Emergence of Emotion 386 The Emergence of Emotion in the Early Years and Childhood 387

Box 10.1: Individual differences Gender Differences in Adolescent Depression 396

Review 398

Regulation of Emotion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398 The Development of Emotional Regulation 399 The Relation of Emotional Self-Regulation to Social Competence and Adjustment 401 Review 402

Individual Differences in Emotion and Its Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . 402 Temperament 403

Box 10.2: A Closer look Measurement of Temperament 406

Review 410

Children’s Emotional Development in the Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410 Quality of the Child’s Relationships with Parents 410 Parental Socialization of Children’s Emotional Responding 411 Review 414

Culture and Children’s Emotional Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 Review 416

Children’s Understanding of Emotion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416 Identifying the Emotions of Others 416 Understanding the Causes and Dynamics of Emotion 418 Children’s Understanding of Real and False Emotions 419 Review 421

Chapter 11 Attachment to Others and Development of Self . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425

The Caregiver–Child Attachment Relationship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 Attachment Theory 428 Measurement of Attachment Security in Infancy 430

Box 11.1: Individual differences Parental Attachment Status 432

Cultural Variations in Attachment 434 Factors Associated with the Security of Children’s Attachment 435

Box 11.2: Applications Interventions and Attachment 436

Does Security of Attachment Have Long-Term Effects? 437 Review 439

Conceptions of the Self . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439 The Development of Conceptions of Self 440

 

 

xv

Identity in Adolescence 446 Review 449

Ethnic Identity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449 Ethnic Identity in Childhood 450 Ethnic Identity in Adolescence 451 Review 453

Sexual Identity or Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453 The Origins of Youths’ Sexual Identity 453 Sexual Identity in Sexual-Minority Youth 454 Review 458

Self-Esteem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458 Sources of Self-Esteem 459 Self-Esteem in Minority Children 462 Culture and Self-Esteem 463 Review 464

Chapter 12 The Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467

Family Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470 Box 12.1: A Closer look Parent–Child Relationships in Adolescence 471

Review 472

The Role of Parental Socialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472 Parenting Styles and Practices 472 The Child as an Influence on Parenting 477 Socioeconomic Influences on Parenting 479

Box 12.2: A Closer look Homelessness 481

Review 482

Mothers, Fathers, and Siblings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 482 Differences in Mothers’ and Fathers’ Interactions with Their Children 482 Sibling Relationships 483 Review 485

Changes in Families in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485 Box 12.3: Individual differences Adolescents as Parents 486

Older Parents 488 Divorce 489 Stepparenting 494 Lesbian and Gay Parents 496 Review 497

Maternal Employment and Child Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498 The Effects of Maternal Employment 498 The Effects of Child Care 500 Review 506

 

 

xvi

Chapter 13 Peer Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509

What Is Special About Peer Relationships? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512

Friendships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 513 Early Peer Interactions and Friendships 513 Developmental Changes in Friendship 515 The Functions of Friendships 517 Effects of Friendships on Psychological Functioning and Behavior over Time 520

Box 13.1: Individual differences Culture and Children’s Peer Experience 522

Children’s Choice of Friends 523 Review 525

Peers in Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525 The Nature of Young Children’s Groups 525 Cliques and Social Networks in Middle Childhood and Early Adolescence 526 Cliques and Social Networks in Adolescence 526 Negative Influences of Cliques and Social Networks 528

Box 13.2: A Closer look Cyberspace and Children’s Peer Experience 529

Romantic Relationships with Peers 531 Review 532

Status in the Peer Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 532 Measurement of Peer Status 533 Characteristics Associated with Sociometric Status 533

Box 13.3: Applications Fostering Children’s Peer Acceptance 538

Stability of Sociometric Status 539 Cross-Cultural Similarities and Differences in Factors Related to Peer Status 539 Peer Status as a Predictor of Risk 540 Review 543

The Role of Parents in Children’s Peer Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . 544 Relations Between Attachment and Competence with Peers 544 Quality of Ongoing Parent–Child Interactions and Peer Relationships 545 Parental Beliefs 546 Gatekeeping and Coaching 546 Family Stress and Children’s Social Competence 548 Review 548

Chapter 14 Moral Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553

Moral Judgment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555 Piaget’s Theory of Moral Judgment 555 Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Judgment 558

 

 

xvii

Prosocial Moral Judgment 562 Domains of Social Judgment 563 Review 566

The Early Development of Conscience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566 Factors Affecting the Development of Conscience 567 Review 568

Prosocial Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 568 The Development of Prosocial Behavior 569 The Origins of Individual Differences in Prosocial Behavior 571

Box 14.1: A Closer look Cultural Contributions to Children’s Prosocial and Antisocial Tendencies 573

Box 14.2: Applications School-Based Interventions for Promoting Prosocial Behavior 576

Review 577

Antisocial Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577 The Development of Aggression and Other Antisocial Behaviors 577 Consistency of Aggressive and Antisocial Behavior 579

Box 14.3: A Closer look Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder 580

Characteristics of Aggressive-Antisocial Children and Adolescents 581 The Origins of Aggression 582 Biology and Socialization: Their Joint Influence on Children’s Antisocial Behavior 587

Box 14.4: Applications The Fast Track Intervention 588

Review 589

Chapter 15 Gender Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 593

Theoretical Approaches to Gender Development . . . . . . . . . . . . 595 Biological Influences 596

Box 15.1: A Closer look: Gender Identity: More than Socialization? 598

Cognitive and Motivational Influences 599 Box 15.2: A Closer look Gender Typing at Home 604

Box 15.3: Applications Where Are SpongeSally SquarePants and Curious Jane? 605

Cultural Influences 606 Review 607

Milestones in Gender Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 607 Infancy and Toddlerhood 608 Preschool Years 608 Middle Childhood 610 Adolescence 612

Box 15.4: A Closer look Gender Flexibility and Asymmetry 613

Review 614

 

 

xviii

Comparing Girls and Boys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 614 Physical Growth: Prenatal Development Through Adolescence 617 Cognitive Abilities and Academic Achievement 619 Personality Traits 625 Interpersonal Goals and Communication 626

Box 15.5: A Closer look Gender and Children’s Communication Styles 627

Aggressive Behavior 628 Box 15.6: Applications Sexual Harassment and Dating Violence 631

Review 633

Chapter 16 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 637

Theme 1: Nature and Nurture: All Interactions, All the Time . . . . . . . 638 Nature and Nurture Begin Interacting Before Birth 638 Infants’ Nature Elicits Nurture 639 Timing Matters 639 Nature Does Not Reveal Itself All at Once 640 Everything Influences Everything 641

Theme 2: Children Play Active Roles in Their Own Development . . . . 641 Self-Initiated Activity 642 Active Interpretation of Experience 643 Self-Regulation 643 Eliciting Reactions from Other People 644

Theme 3: Development Is Both Continuous and Discontinuous . . . . . 645 Continuity/Discontinuity of Individual Differences 645 Continuity/Discontinuity of Overall Development: The Question of Stages 646

Theme 4: Mechanisms of Developmental Change . . . . . . . . . . . . 648 Biological Change Mechanisms 648 Behavioral Change Mechanisms 649 Cognitive Change Mechanisms 651 Change Mechanisms Work Together 653

Theme 5: The Sociocultural Context Shapes Development . . . . . . . 653 Growing Up in Societies with Different Practices and Values 653 Growing Up in Different Times and Places 655 Growing Up in Different Circumstances Within a Society 655

Theme 6: Individual Differences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 656 Breadth of Individual Differences at a Given Time 657 Stability Over Time 658 Predicting Future Individual Differences on Other Dimensions 658 Determinants of Individual Differences 659

Theme 7: Child-Development Research Can Improve Children’s Lives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 660

 

 

xix

Implications for Parenting 660 Implications for Education 662 Implications for Helping Children at Risk 662 Improving Social Policy 664

Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-1

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R-1

Name Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NI-1

Subject Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SI-1

 

 

xx

This is an exciting time in the field of child development. The past decade has brought new theories, new ways of thinking, new areas of research, and innumera- ble new findings to the field. We originally wrote How Children Develop to describe this ever-improving body of knowledge of children and their development and to convey our excitement about the progress that is being made in understanding the developmental process. We are pleased to continue this endeavor with the publica- tion of the fourth edition of How Children Develop.

As teachers of child development courses, we appreciate the challenge that in- structors face in trying to present these advances and discoveries—as well as the major older ideas and findings—in a one-semester course. Therefore, rather than aim at encyclopedic coverage, we have focused on identifying the most important developmental phenomena and describing them in sufficient depth to make them meaningful and memorable to students. In short, our goal has been to write a text- book that makes the child development course coherent and enjoyable for students and teachers alike.

Classic Themes The basic premise of the book is that all areas of child development are unified by a small set of enduring themes. These themes can be stated in the form of questions that child development research tries to answer:

1. How do nature and nurture together shape development?

2. How do children shape their own development?

3. In what ways is development continuous and in what ways is it discontinuous?

4. How does change occur?

5. How does the sociocultural context influence development?

6. How do children become so different from one another?

7. How can research promote children’s well-being?

These seven themes provide the core structure of the book. They are introduced and illustrated in Chapter 1, highlighted repeatedly, where relevant, in the subse- quent fourteen content chapters, and utilized in the final chapter as a framework for integrating findings relevant to each theme from all areas of development. The continuing coverage of these themes allows us to tell a story that has a beginning (the introduction of the themes), a middle (discussion of specific findings relevant to them), and an ending (the overview of what students have learned about the themes). We believe that this thematic emphasis and structure will not only help students to understand enduring questions about child development but will also leave them with a greater sense of satisfaction and completion at the end of the course.

preface:

 

 

xxi

Contemporary Perspective The goal of providing a thoroughly contemporary perspective on how children develop has influenced the organization of our book as well as its contents. Whole new areas and perspectives have emerged that barely existed when most of today’s child development textbooks were originally written. The organization of How Children Develop is designed to present these new topics and approaches in the context of the field as it currently stands, rather than trying to shoehorn them into organizations that once fit the field but no longer do.

Consider the case of Piaget’s theory and current research relevant to it. Piaget’s theory often is presented in its own chapter, most of which describes the theory in full detail and the rest of which offers contemporary research that demonstrates problems with the theory. This approach often leaves students wondering why so much time was spent on Piaget’s theory if modern research shows it to be wrong in so many ways.

The fact is that the line of research that began over 40 years ago as an effort to challenge Piaget’s theory has emerged since then as a vital area in its own right— the area of conceptual development. Research in conceptual development provides extensive information on such fascinating topics as children’s understanding of human beings, plants and animals, and the physical universe. As with other re- search areas, most studies in this field are aimed primarily at uncovering evidence relevant to current claims, not those of Piaget.

We adapted to this changing intellectual landscape in two ways. First, our chap- ter “Theories of Cognitive Development” (Chapter 4) describes the fundamental aspects of Piaget’s theory in depth and honors his legacy by focusing on the aspects of his work that have proven to be the most enduring. Second, a first-of-its-kind chapter called “Conceptual Development” (Chapter 7) addresses the types of issues that inspired Piaget’s theory but concentrates on modern perspectives and findings regarding those issues. This approach allows us to tell students about the numerous intriguing proposals and observations that are being made in this field, without the artificiality of classifying the findings as “pro-Piagetian” or “anti-Piagetian.”

The opportunity to create a textbook based on current understanding also led us to assign prominent positions to such rapidly emerging areas as epigenetics, behavioral genetics, brain development, prenatal learning, infant cognition, acquisi- tion of academic skills, emotional development, prosocial behavior, and friendship patterns. All these areas have seen major breakthroughs in recent years, and their growing prominence has led to even greater emphasis on them in this edition.

Getting Right to the Point Our desire to offer a contemporary, streamlined approach led to other departures from the traditional organization. It is our experience that today’s students take child development courses for a variety of practical reasons and are eager to learn about children. Traditionally, however, they have had to wait two or three or even four chapters—on the history of the field, on major theories, on research methods, on genetics—before actually getting to the study of children. We wanted to build on their initial motivation from the start.

Rather than beginning the book, then, with an extensive examination of the his- tory of the field, we include in Chapter 1 a brief overview of the social and intel- lectual context in which the scientific study of children arose and provide historical

 

 

xxii

background wherever it is pertinent in subsequent chapters. Rather than have an early “blockbuster” theories chapter that covers all the major cognitive and social theories at once (at a point far removed from the content chapters to which the theories apply), we present a chapter on cognitive developmental theories just before the chapters that focus on specific aspects of cognitive development, and we simi- larly present a chapter on social developmental theories just before the chapters that focus on specific aspects of social development. Rather than have a separate chapter on genetics, we include basic aspects of genetics as part of Chapter 3, “Biology and Behavior,” and then discuss the contributions of genetics to some of the differences among individuals throughout the book. When we originally chose this organization, we hoped that it would allow us, from the first weeks of the course, to kindle students’ enthusiasm for finding out how children develop. Judging by the overwhelmingly positive response we have received from students and instructors alike, it has.

Features The most important feature of this book is the exposition, which we have tried to make as clear, compelling, and interesting as possible. As in previous editions, we have given extra attention to making it accessible to a broad range of students.

To further enhance the appeal and accessibility of the text, we have re- tained three types of discussion boxes that explore topics of special interest. “Applications” boxes focus on how child development research can be used to promote children’s well-being. Among the applications that are summed up in these boxes are board-game procedures for improving preschoolers’ understand- ing of numbers; the Carolina Abecedarian Project; interventions to reduce child abuse; programs, such as PATHS, for helping rejected children gain acceptance from their peers; and Fast Track interventions, which help aggressive children learn how to manage their anger and antisocial behavior. “Individual Differences” boxes focus on populations that differ from the norm with regard to the specific topic under consideration, or on variations among children in the general popu- lation. Some of these boxes highlight developmental problems such as autism, ADHD, dyslexia, specific language impairment, and conduct disorder, while oth- ers focus on differences in the development of children that center on attachment status, gender, and cultural differences. “A Closer Look” boxes examine important and interesting research in greater depth than would otherwise be possible: the areas examined range from brain imaging techniques to discrepant gender iden- tity to the developmental impact of homelessness.

We have also retained a number of other features intended to improve students’ learning. These features include boldfacing key terms and supplying definitions both within the immediate text and in marginal glossaries; providing summaries at the end of each major section, as well as summaries for the overall chapter; and, at the end of each chapter, posing critical thinking questions intended to promote deeper consideration of essential topics.

New to the Fourth Edition We have expanded our coverage of a number of research areas that have become increasingly important in recent years for both the students of child development and the instructors who teach it. In the following paragraphs, we outline some of

 

 

xxiii

the highlights of the fourth edition. Thank you for taking the time to look through this new edition of How Children Develop. We hope that you find it to be useful and appealing.

New and Expanded Coverage In selecting what to cover from among the many new discoveries about child de- velopment, we have emphasized the studies that strike us as the most interesting and important. While retaining and thoroughly updating its essential coverage, the fourth edition of How Children Develop continues to explore a number of fascinat- ing areas in which there has been great progress in the past few years. Following is a very brief sampling of the many areas of new and expanded coverage: n Epigenetics n Gene–environment relations, including methylation n The role of specific gene variants in certain behaviors n Differential susceptibility to the environment n Brain development and functioning n Mechanisms of infants’ learning n Infants’ understanding of other people n Executive functioning n Cultural influences on development n Relations among understanding of time, space, and number n Mathematics anxiety n Applications of research to education n The growing role and impact of social media in children’s and adolescents’ lives n Interventions to foster children’s social adjustment

Supplements How Children Develop, Fourth Edition, features a wide array of multimedia tools designed for the individual needs of students and teachers. For more information about any of the items below, visit Worth Publishers’ online catalog at www. worth publishers.com.

LaunchPad with LearningCurve Quizzing A comprehensive Web resource for teaching and learning psychology

LaunchPad combines Worth Publishers’ awarding-winning media with an in- novative platform for easy navigation. For students, it is the ultimate online study guide with rich interactive tutorials, videos, e-Book, and the LearningCurve adaptive quizzing system. For instructors, LaunchPad is a full course space where class documents can be posted, quizzes are easily assigned and graded, and students’ progress can be assessed and recorded. Whether you are looking for the most effec- tive study tools or a robust platform for an online course, LaunchPad is a powerful way to enhance your class.

 

 

xxiv

LaunchPad for How Children Develop, Fourth Edition, can be previewed and purchased at http:// www .worthpublishers.com/launchpad/siegler4e. How Children Develop, Fourth Edition, and LaunchPad can be ordered together with ISBN 10: 1-4641-8284-1 / ISBN-13: 978-1-4641-8284-6.

LaunchPad for How Children Develop, Fourth Edition, includes the following resources: n The LearningCurve quizzing system was designed

based on the latest findings from learning and memory research. It combines adaptive question selection, immediate and valuable feedback, and a game-like interface to engage students in a learning experience that is unique to them. Each LearningCurve quiz is fully integrated with other resources in LaunchPad through the Personalized Study Plan, so students will be able to review with Worth’s extensive library of videos and activities. And state-of-the-art question analysis reports allow instructors to track the progress of individual students as well as their class as a whole.

n An interactive e-Book allows students to highlight, bookmark, and make their own notes, just as they would with a printed textbook. Digital enhancements include full-text search and in-text glossary definitions.

n Student Video Activities include more than 100 engaging video modules that instructors can easily assign for student assessment. Videos cover classic experiments, current news footage, and cutting-edge research, all of

which are sure to spark discussion and encourage critical thinking. n The Scientific American Newsfeed delivers weekly articles, podcasts, and news

briefs on the very latest developments in psychology from the first name in popular science journalism.

Additional Student Supplements CourseSmart e-Book The CourseSmart e-Book offers the complete text of How Children Develop, Fourth Edition, in an easy-to-use, flexible format. Students can choose to view the CourseSmart e-Book online or download it to a personal computer or a por- table media player, such as a smart phone or iPad. The CourseSmart e-Book for How Children Develop, Fourth Edition, can be previewed and purchased at www .coursesmart.com.

Scientific American Reader to Accompany How Children Develop The authors have compiled fifteen Scientif ic American articles relevant to key top- ics in the text. The selections range from classics such as Harry Harlow’s “Love in Infant Monkeys” and Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk’s “The ‘Visual Cliff ’” to

 

 

xxv

contemporary articles on such topics as the interaction of games and environment in the development of intelligence (Robert Plomin and John DeFries), the effects of child abuse on the developing brain (Martin Teicher), balancing work and family (Robert Pleck), and moral development (William Damon). These articles should enrich students’ learning and help them to appreciate the process by which devel- opmental scientists gain new understanding. This premium item can be packaged with the text at no additional cost.

Take advantage of our most popular supplements!

Worth Publishers is pleased to offer cost-saving packages of How Children Develop, Fourth Edition, with our most popular

supplements. Below is a list of some of the most popular combinations available for order through your local bookstore.

How Children Develop, 4th Ed. & LaunchPad Access Card ISBN 10: 1-4641-8284-1 / ISBN-13: 978-1-4641-8284-6

How Children Develop, 4th Ed. & iClicker ISBN 10: 1-4641-8283-3 / ISBN-13: 978-1-4641-8283-9

How Children Develop, 4th Ed. & Scientif ic American Reader ISBN 10: 1-4641-8282-5 / ISBN-13: 978-1-4641-8282-2

How Children Develop, 4th Ed. & Readings on the Development of Children ISBN 10: 1-4641-8281-7 / ISBN-13: 978-1-4641-8281-5

Presentation and Faculty Support Presentation Slides Presentation slides are available in three formats that can be used as they are or can be customized. One set includes all the textbook’s illustrations and tables. The second set consists of lecture slides that focus on key themes and terms in the book and include text illustrations and tables. A third set of PowerPoint slides provides an easy way to integrate the supplementary video clips into classroom lectures. All these prebuilt PowerPoint presentations are available through http://www.worth publishers.com/launchpad/siegler4e.

Presentation Videos Worth’s video clips for development psychology span the full range of topics for the child development course. With hundreds of clips to choose from, this pre- mium collection includes research and news footage on topics ranging from pre- natal development to the experience of child soldiers to empathy in adolescence. These clips are made available to instructors for lecturing in the classroom and also through LaunchPad.

Instructor’s Resource Manual Written by Lynne Baker-Ward, North Carolina State University, this innovative Instructor’s Resource Manual includes handouts for student projects, reading lists of journal articles, course-planning suggestions, and supplementary readings, in addition

 

 

xxvi

to lecture guides, chapter overviews, and learning objectives. The Instructor’s Resource Manual can be downloaded at http://www. worth publishers.com/ launchpad/siegler4e.

New! Faculty Lounge Faculty Lounge is an online forum provided by Worth Publishers where teachers can find and share favorite teaching ideas and materials, including videos, animations, images, PowerPoint slides, news stories, articles, Web links, and lecture activities. Sign up to browse the site or upload your favorite materials for teaching psychology at www .worthpublishers.com/facultylounge.

Assessment Test Bank The Test Bank for How Children Develop by Jill L. Saxon

features 80 multiple-choice and 20 essay questions for each chapter. Each question is keyed to the textbook by topic, type, and level of difficulty.

Test Bank on CD-ROM The Diploma Test Bank CD-ROM, on a dual platform for Windows and Macintosh, guides instructors through the process of creating a test and allows them to add, edit, and scramble questions; to change formats; and to include pictures, equa- tions, and media links. The CD-ROM is also the access point for Diploma Online Testing, which allows creating and administering examinations on paper, over a network, or over the Internet.

iClicker The iClicker Classroom Response System is a versatile polling system developed by educators for educators that makes class time more efficient and interactive. iClicker allows you to ask questions and instantly record your students’ responses, take attendance, and gauge students’ understanding and opinions. iClicker is avail- able at a 10% discount when packaged with How Children Develop, Fourth Edition.

Course Management Worth Publishers supports multiple Course Management Systems with en- hanced cartridges for upload into Blackboard, Angel, Desire2Learn, Sakai, and Moodle (and others upon request). Cartridges are provided free upon adoption of How Children Develop, Fourth Edition, and can be downloaded through the catalog page at www.worthpublishers.com.

Acknowledgments So many people have contributed (directly and indirectly) to this textbook that it is impossible to know where to start or where to stop in thanking them. All of us have been given exceptional support by our spouses and significant oth-

 

 

xxvii

ers—Jerry Clore, Jerry Harris, Xiaodong Lin, and Seth Pollak—and by our chil- dren—Benjamin Clore; Michael Harris; Todd, Beth, and Aaron Siegler; Avianna McGhee; and Eli and Nell Pollak—as well as by our parents, relatives, friends, and other loved ones. Our advisors in college and graduate school, Richard Aslin, Ann Brown, Les Cohen, Harry Hake, Robert Liebert, Jim Morgan, Paul Mussen, Ellisa Newport, and Jim Pate, helped to launch our careers and taught us how to recog- nize and appreciate good research. We also have all benefited from collaborators who shared our quest for understanding child development and from a great many exceptionally helpful and generous colleagues, including Karen Adolph, Martha Alibali, Renee Baillargeon, Sharon Carver, Zhe Chen, Richard Fabes, Cindy Fisher, Melanie Jones, David Klahr, Patrick Lemaire, Angeline Lillard, John Opfer, Kristin Shutts, Tracy Spinrad, David Uttal, and Carlos Valiente. We owe special thanks to our assistants, Sheri Towe and Theresa Treasure, who helped in innumerable ways in preparing the book.

We would also like to thank the many reviewers who contributed to this and previous editions: Daisuke Akiba, Queens College, City University of New York; Kimberly Alkins, Queens College, City University of New York; Lynne Baker- Ward, North Carolina State University; Hilary Barth, Wesleyan University; Christopher Beevers, Texas University; Martha Bell, Virginia Tech; Cynthia Berg, University of Utah; Rebecca Bigler, Texas University; Margaret Borkowski, Saginaw Valley State University; Eric Buhs, University of Nebraska–Lincoln; G. Leonard Burns, Washington State University; Wendy Carlson, Shenandoah University; Kristi Cordell-McNulty, Angelo State University; Myra Cox, Harold Washington College; Emily Davidson, Texas A&M University–Main Campus; Ed de St. Aubin, Marquette University; Marissa Diener, University of Utah; Sharon Eaves, Shawnee State University; Urminda Firlan, Grand Rapids Community College; Dorothy Fragaszy, University of Georgia; Jeffery Gagne, University of Texas–Austin; Jennifer Ganger, University of Pittsburgh; Alice Ganzel, Cornell College; Janet Gebelt, Westfield State University; Melissa Ghera, St. John Fisher College; Susan Graham, University of Calgary; Andrea Greenhoot, University of Kansas; Frederick Grote, Western Washington University; John Gruszkos, Reynolds University; Hanna Gustafsson, University of North Carolina; Alma Guyse, Midland College; Lauren Harris, Michigan State University; Karen Hartlep, California State University–Bakersfield; Patricia Hawley, University of Kansas–Main; Susan Hespos, Northwestern University; Doris Hiatt, Monmouth University; Susan Holt, Central Connecticut State University; Lisa Huffman, Ball State University; Kathryn Kipp, University of Georgia; Rosemary Krawczyk, Minnesota State University; Raymond Krukovsky, Union County College; Tara Kuther, Western Connecticut State University; Richard Lanthier, George Washington University; Elida Laski, Boston College; Kathryn Lemery, Arizona State University; Barbara Licht, Florida State University; Angeline Lillard, University of Virginia; Wayne McMillin, Northwestern State University; Martha Mendez-Baldwin, Manhattan College; Scott Miller, University of Florida; Keith Nelson, Pennsylvania State University–Main Campus; Paul Nicodemus, Austin Peay State University; Katherine O’Doherty, Vanderbilt University; John Opfer, The Ohio State University; Ann Repp, Texas University; Leigh Shaw, Weber State University; Jennifer Simonds, Westminster College; Rebekah Smith, University of Texas–San Antonio; Mark Strauss, University of Pittsburgh–Main; Spencer Thompson, University of Texas–Permian Basin; Lisa Travis, University of Illinois Urbana–Champaign; Roger Webb, University of Arkansas–Little Rock; Keri Weed, University of South Carolina–Aiken; Sherri Widen, Boston College.

 

 

xxviii

We would especially like to thank Campbell Leaper, University of California– Santa Cruz, for his major contributions to the revision of our chapter on gender development (Chapter 15). We are indebted to Campbell for bringing to the fourth edition his expertise and keen insight in this important area.

Thanks are particularly due to our friends and collaborators at Worth Publishers. As acquisitions editor and publisher, respectively, Daniel DeBonis and Kevin Feyen provided exceptional support and any number of excellent suggestions. We would also like to thank Marge Byers, who nurtured our first edition from its incep- tion and helped us to realize our vision. Peter Deane, our development editor, is in a class by himself in both skill and dedication. Peter’s creative thinking and firm understanding of the field enhanced the content of the book in innumerable ways. We are deeply grateful to him. Our thanks go also to assistant editor Nadina Persaud, senior project editor Vivien Weiss, director of development (print and digital) Tracey Kuehn, art director Barbara Reingold, cover and text designer Kevin Kall, photo editor Bianca Moscatelli, photo researcher Elyse Rieder, production manager Sarah Segal, and compositor Northeastern Graphic for their excellent work. They have helped to create a book that we hope you will find a pleasure to look at as well as to read. Marketing manager Katherine Nurre provided outstand- ing promotional materials to inform professors about the book. Anthony Casciano and Stacey Alexander managed the superb package of ancillary material.

Finally, we want to thank our “book team” of sales representatives and man- agers. Tom Kling, Julie Hirshman, Kari Ewalt, Greg David, Tom Scotty, Cindy Rabinowitz, Glenn Russell, and Matt Dunning provided a sales perspective, valu- able suggestions, and unflagging enthusiasm throughout this project.

 

 

develop How Children

 

 

P R

IV AT

E C

O LL

EC TI

O N

/ M

A R

K M

U R

R AY

F IN

E PA

IN TI

N G

S, N

EW Y

O R

K /

TH E

B R

ID G

EM A

N A

R T

LI B

R A

R Y

xxx

DOROTHEA SHARP (1874-1955), Young Explorers (oil on canvas)

 

 

1

An Introduction to Child Development n Reasons to Learn About Child Development

Raising Children Choosing Social Policies Understanding Human Nature Review

n Historical Foundations of the Study of Child Development Early Philosophers’ Views of Children’s Development Social Reform Movements Darwin’s Theory of Evolution The Beginnings of Research-Based Theories of Child Development Review

n Enduring Themes in Child Development 1. Nature and Nurture: How Do Nature and Nurture Together Shape Development? 2. The Active Child: How Do Children Shape Their Own Development?

3. Continuity/Discontinuity: In What Ways Is Development Continuous, and in What Ways Is It Discontinuous? 4. Mechanisms of Development: How Does Change Occur? 5. The Sociocultural Context: How Does the Sociocultural Context Influence Development? 6. Individual Differences: How Do Children Become So Different from One Another? 7. Research and Children’s Welfare: How Can Research Promote Children’s Well-Being? Review

n Methods for Studying Child Development The Scientific Method Contexts for Gathering Data About Children Correlation and Causation Designs for Examining Development Ethical Issues in Child-Development Research Review

n Chapter Summary

chapter 1:

 

 

2

In 1955, a group of child-development researchers began a unique study. Their goal, like that of many developmental researchers, was to find out how bio-logical and environmental factors influence children’s intellectual, social, and emotional growth. What made their study unique was that they examined these diverse aspects of development for all 698 children born that year on the Hawaiian island of Kauai and continued studying the children’s development for more than 30 years.

With the parents’ consent, the research team, headed by Emmy Werner, col- lected many types of data about the children. To learn about possible complica- tions during the prenatal period and birth, they examined physicians’ records. To learn about family interactions and the children’s behavior at home, they arranged for nurses and social workers to observe the families and to interview the children’s mothers when the children were 1 year old and again when they were 10 years old. The researchers also interviewed teachers about the children’s academic perfor- mance and classroom behavior during the elementary school years and examined police, family court, and social service records that involved the children, either as victims or perpetrators. Finally, the researchers administered standardized intelli- gence and personality tests to the participants when they were 10 and 18 years old and interviewed them at age 18 and again in their early 30s to find out how they saw their own development.

Results from this study illustrated some of the many ways in which biological and environmental factors combine to produce child development. For example, children who experienced prenatal or birth complications were more likely than others to develop physical handicaps, mental illness, and learning difficulties. But whether they developed such problems—and if so, to what degree—depended a great deal on their home environment. Parents’ income, education, and mental health, together with the quality of the relationship between the parents, especially influenced children’s development. By age 2, toddlers who had experienced severe prenatal or birth problems but who lived in harmonious middle-income families were nearly as advanced in language and motor skills as were children who had not experienced such problems. By the time the children were 10-year-olds, prenatal and birth problems were consistently related to psychological difficulties only if the children also grew up in poor rearing conditions.

What of children who faced both biological and environmental challenges— prenatal or birth complications and adverse family circumstances? The majority of these children developed serious learning or behavior problems by age 10. By age 18, most had acquired a police record, had experienced mental health problems, or had become an unmarried parent. However, one-third of such at-risk children showed impressive resilience, growing up into young adults who, in the words of Werner (1989, p. 108D), “loved well, worked well, and played well.”

Michael was one such resilient child. Born prematurely, with low birth weight, to teenage parents, he spent the first 3 weeks of his life in a hospital, separated from his mother. By his 8th birthday, Michael’s parents were divorced, his mother had deserted the family, and he and his three brothers and sisters were being raised by their father, with the help of their elderly grandparents. Yet by age 18, Michael was successful in school, had high self-esteem, was popular with his peers, and was a caring young man with a positive attitude toward life. The fact that there are many children like Michael—children who show great resilience in the face of adversity—is among the most heartening findings of research on

Themes n Nature and Nurture

n The Active Child

n Continuity/Discontinuity

n Mechanisms of Change

n The Sociocultural Context

n Individual Differences

n Research and Children’s Welfare

 

 

REASONS TO LEARN ABOUT CHILD DEVELOPMENT n 3

child development. Learning about the Michaels of the world inspires child de- velopment researchers to conduct further investigations aimed at answering such questions as why individual children differ so much in their response to similar environments, and how to apply research findings to help more children overcome the challenges they face.

Reading this chapter will increase your understanding of these and other basic questions about child development. It also will introduce you to some historical perspectives on these fundamental questions and to the perspectives and methods that modern researchers use to address them. But first, we would like you to con- sider perhaps the most basic question of all: Why study child development?

Reasons to Learn About Child Development For us, as both parents and researchers, the sheer enjoyment of watching children and trying to understand them is reason enough for studying child development. What could be more fascinating than the development of a child? But there are also practical and intellectual reasons for studying child development. Understand- ing how children develop can improve child-rearing, promote the adoption of wiser social policies regard- ing children’s welfare, and answer intriguing questions about human nature. We examine each of these reasons in the following sections.

Raising Children Being a good parent is not easy. Among its many chal- lenges are the endless questions it raises over the years. Is it okay to take my infant outside in the cold weather? Should my baby stay at home, or would going to day care be better for his social development? If my daughter starts walking and talking early, should I consider plac- ing her in a school for gifted children? Should I try to teach my 3-year-old to read early? My son seems so lonely at preschool; how can I help him make friends? How can I help my kindergartner deal with her anger?

Child-development research can help answer such questions. For example, one problem that confronts almost all parents is how to help their children control their anger and other negative emotions. One tempting, and frequent, reaction is to spank children who express anger in inappropriate ways, such as fighting, name-calling, and talking back. In a study involving a representative U.S. sam- ple, 80% of parents of kindergarten children reported having spanked their child on occasion, and 27% reported having spanked their child the previous week ( Gershoff et al., 2012). In fact, spanking made the problem worse. The more often parents spanked their kindergartners, the more often the same children argued, fought, and acted inappropriately at school when they were 3rd-graders. This relation held true for Blacks, Whites, Hispanics, and Asians alike, and it held true above and beyond the effects of other relevant factors, such as parents’ income and education.

Fortunately, research suggests several effective alternatives to spanking (Denham, 1998, 2006). One is expressing sympathy: when parents respond to their

Will these children be resilient enough to overcome their disadvantaged environment? The answer will depend in large part on how many risk factors they face and on their per- sonal characteristics.

R O

B ER

T N

IC K

EL SB

U R

G /

G ET

TY IM

A G

ES

 

 

4 n chapTer 1 AN INTRODUCTION TO CHILD DEVELOPMENT

children’s distress with sympathy, the children are better able to cope with the situation causing the distress. Another ef- fective approach is helping angry children find positive alter- natives to expressing anger. For example, encouraging them to do something they enjoy helps them cope with the hostile feelings.

These strategies and similar ones, such as time-outs, can also be used effectively by others who contribute to raising children, such as day-care personnel and teachers. One dem- onstration of this was provided by a special curriculum that was devised for helping preschoolers (3- and 4-year-olds) who were angry and out of control (Denham & Burton, 1996). With this curriculum, preschool teachers helped children rec- ognize their own and other children’s emotions, taught them techniques for controlling their anger, and guided them in resolving conflicts with other children. One approach that children were taught for coping with anger was the “turtle technique.” When children felt themselves becoming angry, they were to move away from other children and retreat into

their “turtle shell,” where they could think through the situation until they were ready to emerge from the shell. Posters were placed around the classroom to remind children of what to do when they became angry.

The curriculum was quite successful. Children who participated in it became more skillful in recognizing and regulating anger when they experienced it and were generally less negative. For example, one boy, who had regularly gotten into fights when angry, told the teacher after a dispute with another child, “See, I used my words, not my hands” (Denham, 1998, p. 219). The benefits of this program can be long-term. In one test conducted with children in special education classrooms, positive effects were still evident 2 years after children completed the curricu- lum (Greenberg & Kusché, 2006). As this example suggests, knowledge of child- development research can be helpful to everyone involved in the care of children.

Choosing Social Policies Another reason to learn about child development is to be able to make informed de- cisions not just about one’s own children but also about a wide variety of social-policy questions that affect children in general. For example, how much trust should judges and juries place in preschoolers’ testimony in child-abuse cases? Should children who do poorly in school be held back, or should they be promoted to the next grade so that they can be with children of the same age? How effective are health- education courses aimed at reducing teenage smoking, drinking, and pregnancy? Child-development research can inform discussion of all of these policy decisions and many others.

Consider the issue of how much trust to put in preschoolers’ courtroom tes- timony. At present, more than 100,000 children testify in legal cases each year (Bruck, Ceci, & Principe, 2006). Many of these children are very young: more than 40% of children who testify in sexual-abuse trials, for example, are younger than 5 years, and almost 40% of substantiated sexual-abuse cases involve children younger than age 7 (Bruck et al., 2006; Gray, 1993). The stakes are extremely high in such cases. If juries believe children who falsely testify that they were abused, innocent people may spend years in jail. If juries do not believe children who accurately

posters like this are used in the turtle tech- nique to remind children of ways to control anger.

 

 

REASONS TO LEARN ABOUT CHILD DEVELOPMENT n 5

report abuse, the perpetrators will go free and probably abuse other children. So what can be done to promote reliable testimony from young children and to avoid leading them to report experiences that never occurred?

Psychological research has helped answer such questions. In one experiment, re- searchers tested whether biased questioning affects the accuracy of young children’s memory for events involving touching one’s own and other people’s bodies. The re- searchers began by having 3- to 6-year-olds play a game, similar to “Simon Says,” in which the children were told to touch various parts of their body and those of other children. A month later, the researchers had a social worker interview the children about their experiences during the game (Ceci & Bruck, 1998). Before the social worker conducted the interviews, she was given a description of each child’s experiences. Unknown to her, the description included inaccurate as well as accurate information. For example, she might have been told that a particular child had touched her own stomach and another child’s nose, when in fact the child had touched her own stomach and the other child’s foot. After receiving the descrip- tion, the social worker was given instructions much like those in a court case: “Find out what the child remembers.”

As it turned out, the version of events that the social worker had heard often in- fluenced her questions. If, for example, a child’s account of an event was contrary to what the social worker believed to be the case, she tended to question the child repeatedly about the event (“Are you sure you touched his foot? Is it possible you touched some other part of his body?”). Faced with such repeated questioning, children fairly often changed their responses, with 34% of 3- and 4-year-olds eventually corroborating at least one of the social worker’s incorrect beliefs. Children were led to “remember” not only plau- sible events that never happened but also unlikely ones that the social worker had been told about. For example, some children “recalled” their knee being licked and a marble being inserted in their ear.

Studies such as this have yielded a number of con- clusions regarding children’s testimony in legal pro- ceedings. One important finding is that when 3- to 5-year-olds are not asked leading questions, their testi- mony is usually accurate, as far as it goes (Bruck et al., 2006; Howe & Courage, 1997). However, when prompted by leading questions, young children’s testimony is often inaccurate, especially when the leading ques- tions are asked repeatedly. The younger children are, the more susceptible they are to being led, and the more their recall reflects the biases of the interviewer’s ques- tions. In addition, realistic props, such as anatomically correct dolls and drawings, that are often used in judicial cases in the hopes of improving recall of sexual abuse, do not improve recall of events that occurred; they actually increase the number of inaccurate claims, perhaps by blurring the line between fantasy play and reality (Lamb et al., 2008; Poole, Bruck, & Pipe, 2011). Research on child eyewitness tes- timony has had a large practical impact, leading many judicial and police agencies to revise their procedures for interviewing child witnesses to incorporate the les- sons of this research (e.g., State of Michigan, Governor’s Task Force, 2005). In ad- dition to helping courts obtain more accurate testimony from young children, such research-based conclusions illustrate how, at a broader level, knowledge of child development can inform social policies.

In courtrooms such as this one, asking ques- tions that will help children to testify accu- rately is of the utmost importance.