Psychology 6

Chapters 12 & 13

As we have reviewed the readings this week, we have learned about the personality and a number of different theories which include Psychodynamic, Humanistic, as well as Trait and Social-Cognitive Theories. Answer  the following questions:

Why has psychology generated so much research on the self?

How important is self-esteem to psychology and to our well-being?

How do you view your self-esteem?

Exploring PSYCHOLOGY

MyersEx9e_FM.indd iMyersEx9e_FM.indd i 10/25/12 11:03 AM10/25/12 11:03 AM

 

 

MyersEx9e_FM.indd iiMyersEx9e_FM.indd ii 10/25/12 11:03 AM10/25/12 11:03 AM

this page left intentionally blank

 

 

INTERNATIONAL EDITION

Special Contributor

C. Nathan DeWall, University of Kentucky

WORTH PUBLISHERS

Hope College Holland, Michigan

David G. Myers

Exploring PSYCHOLOGY

NINTH EDITION

MyersEx9e_FM.indd iiiMyersEx9e_FM.indd iii 10/25/12 11:03 AM10/25/12 11:03 AM

 

 

Senior Vice President, Editorial and Production: Catherine Woods Publisher: Kevin Feyen Executive Marketing Manager: Katherine Nurre Development Editors: Christine Brune, Nancy Fleming Director of Print and Digital Development: Tracey Kuehn Media Editor: Elizabeth Block Supplements Editors: Betty Probert, Nadina Persaud Photo Editor: Bianca Moscatelli Photo Researcher: Donna Ranieri Art Director: Babs Reingold Cover Designers: Lyndall Culbertson and Babs Reingold Interior and Chapter Opener Designer: Charles Yuen Layout Designer: Lee Ann McKevitt Cover Photo Illustrator: Lyndall Culbertson Associate Managing Editor: Lisa Kinne Project Editor: Jeanine Furino Marketing Assistant: Julie Tompkins Illustration Coordinators: Bill Page, Janice Donnola Illustrations: TSI Graphics, Keith Kasnot, Todd Buck Production Manager: Sarah Segal Composition: TSI Graphics Printing and Binding: RR Donnelley

Library of Congress Control Number: 2012948473

Hardcover: ISBN-13: 978-1-4292-6679-6 ISBN-10: 1-4292-6679-1 Paperback: ISBN-13: 978-1-4641-1172-3 ISBN-10: 1-4641-1172-3 Loose-Leaf: ISBN-13: 978-1-4641-0840-2 ISBN-10: 1-4641-0840-4 PI edition: ISBN-13: 978-1-4641-4705-0 ISBN-10: 1-4641-4705-1

© 2014, 2011, 2008, 2005 by Worth Publishers

All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

All royalties from the sale of this book are assigned to the David and Carol Myers Foundation, which exists to receive and distribute funds to other charitable organizations.

Worth Publishers Macmillan Higher Education 41 Madison Avenue Houndmills, Basingstoke New York, NY 10010 RG21 6XS, England www.worthpublishers.com www.macmillanhighered.com/

international

Photo Credits: Cover: Profi le of smiling woman: JGI/Jamie Grill/Getty Images; Man taking a photo: Pedro Vidal/Shutterstock; Mother with baby daughter: Erik Isakson/age fotostock; Circus juggler: RubberBall/SuperStock; Chapter 1: pp. viii, xlii–1, 31, 33: Spiral: Charles Yuen; Water: Photodisc/Getty Images; Rabbit: Mike Kemp/ Getty Images; Magnifying glass: Charles Yuen; MRI: Living Art Enterprises, LLC/Photo Researchers, Inc.; Infant: Lane Oatey/Getty Images; Man holding boxes: Erik Isakson/ age fotostock; Girl studying: OJO Images Ltd/Alamy. Chapter 2: pp. viii, 34–35 and 72, 75: Circuit boards: Charles Yuen; Female kicking: Lev Olkha /Shutterstock; Fox: Eric Isselée/Shutterstock; Brain scan: Zephyr/Photo Researchers, Inc.; Butterfl y: Dim154/ Shutterstock. Chapter 3: pp. ix, 76–77 and 113, 115: Butterfl ies: Svetlana Larina/ istockphoto; Butterfl ies: polarica/istockphoto; Cup of coffee: Vasca/Shutterstock; Sleeping toddler: swissmacky/Shutterstock; Woman meditating: INSADCO Photography/Alamy. Chapter 4: pp. ix, 116–117 and 159, 161: Bucket in sand: René/istockphoto; Beach and palm tree: Charles Yuen; Beach ball: WendellandCarolyn/istockphoto; Mother helping daugh- ter with homework: Indeed/Getty Images; Teens texting: Allan Shoemake/Getty Images; Bride and groom: bluehand/Shutterstock; Mother holding baby: Erik Isakson/age fotostock; Baby being fed with spoon: Asia Images/Getty Images. Chapter 5: pp. ix, 162–163 and 187, 189: Petri dish: Samuel Ashfi eld/Photo Researchers, Inc.; Chromosomes: Pasieka/ Photo Researchers, Inc.; Swans: The Boston Globe/John Tlumacki; Dad and child: MGP/ Getty Images; Teenagers of different heights: Rob Lewine/Getty Images; She-male: vita khorzhevska/Shutterstock; Teenage couple: Petrenko Andriy/Shutterstock. Chapter 6: pp. x, 190–191 and 232, 235: Herbs: Ivonne Wierink/Shutterstock; Herbs: Margrit Hirsch/ Shutterstock; Citrus: Lauren Burke/Jupiterimages; Man with cello: sbarabu/Shutterstock; Child kissing mother’s face: Jose Luis Pelaez, Inc./Blend Images/Corbis; Woman holding fl ower: Asia Images Group/Superstock. Chapter 7: pp. x, 236–237 and 267, 269: Nest with eggs: Duncan Usher/Foto Natura/Getty Images; Trees: Yuriy Kulyk/Shutterstock, Tungphoto/Shutterstock, irin-k/Shutterstock, Perfect Picture Parts/Alamy; Cat: Eric Isselée/Shutterstock; Pigeon: Vitaly Titov & Maria SideInikova/Shutterstock; Kids playing videogames: Stanislav Sointsev/Getty Images; Dog doing stunts: Marina Jay/Shutterstock; Girl on laptop: Lauren Burke/Getty Images; People with books on heads: Image Source/ SuperStock. Chapter 8: pp. xi, 270–271 and 301, 303: Film strips: Charles Yuen; Mouse trap: Darren Matthews/Alamy; Cookie: Jean Sandler/FeaturePics; Girl studying: Sigrid Olsson/PhotoAlto/Corbis; Man taking photo: Pedro Vidal/Shutterstock; Hot air balloon: D. Hurst/Alamy. Chapter 9: pp. xi, 304–305 and 347, 349: Various balls: Charles Yuen; Woman running hurdles: Ocean/Corbis; Man doing crossword: Ann Baldwin/Shutterstock; Puzzle pieces: Alexey Lebedev/Shutterstock; Woman shooting basketball: Blend Images/ Jupiterimages; Man playing saxophone: Masterfi le (Royalty-Free Division); Elephant: Johan Swanepoel/Alamy. Chapter 10: pp. xii, 350–351 and 386: Vietnam landscape: Charles Yuen; Girl using cell phone: Thomas Northcut/Jupiterimages; Woman on treadmill: PhotoObjects.net/Jupiterimages; Teenage boys: Photodisc/Jupiterimages; Woman with arms raised: Mark Andersen/agefotostock. Chapter 11: pp. xii, 389–390 and 419, 421: Fruit and vegetables: Charles Yuen; Two women laughing: Mark Andersen/Getty Images; Man look- ing angry: PhotoSpin, Inc./Alamy; Man kissing dog: Photos.com/Getty Images; Man medi- tating: Dean Mitchell/Shutterstock; Woman touching ground: IMAGEMORE/agefotostock: Nun praying: PhotosIndia.com LLC/Alamy; Tissues, aspirin: D. Hurst/Alamy. Chapter 12: pp. xiii, 422–423 and 453, 455: Masks: Charles Yuen, Bartosz Hadyniak/istockphoto, Perry Correll/Shutterstock, brytta/istockphoto, Hemera Technologies/Jupiterimages; Happy dog: Erik Lam/Shutterstock; Centaur: Liquidlibrary/Jupiterimages; Girl: Timothy Large/Shutterstock; Circus juggler: RubberBall/Superstock. Chapter 13: pp. xiii, 456–457 and 501, 503: Aerial beach scene: Brand X Pictures; Football: Todd Taulman/ Shutterstock; Blog links: Lada Adamic and Natalie Glance; Wrench: Punchstock/Corbis; Gaming console: Microsoft Corporation; Tattooed arm: David Katzenstein/Photolibrary; Dancing couple: Photodisc/Jupiterimages. Chapter 14: pp. xiii, 504–505 and 541: Upset woman: Wavebreakmedia Ltd/Jupiterimages; Eyes: Blend Images/Alamy, Photodisc/ Getty Images; Tarantula: Martin Harvey/Jupiterimages; Snake: Hemera Technologies/ Jupiterimages; Blindfolded woman leading man: Erik Isakson/age footstock; Depressed man: Image Source/Getty Images. Chapter 15: pp. xiv, 544–545 and 578, 580: Crocus fl ow- ers through snow: Myotis/Shutterstock; Couple on bicycle: RubberBall/SuperStock; Healthy woman: RubberBall/Nicole Hill/Jupiterimages; People in rainforest: Randy Faris/Corbis.

MyersEx9e_FM.indd ivMyersEx9e_FM.indd iv 10/25/12 11:03 AM10/25/12 11:03 AM

 

 

For Sara Neevel with gratitude for your meticulous support, and for your friendship

MyersEx9e_FM.indd vMyersEx9e_FM.indd v 10/25/12 11:03 AM10/25/12 11:03 AM

 

 

vi PREFACE

DAVID MYERS received his psychology Ph.D. from the Univer- sity of Iowa. He has spent his career at Hope College in Michigan, where he has taught dozens of introductory psychology sections. Hope College students have invited him to be their commencement speaker and voted him “outstanding professor.”

His research and writings have been recognized by the Gordon Allport Intergroup Relations Prize, by a 2010 Honored Scientist award from the Federation of Associations in Behavioral & Brain Sciences, by a 2010 Award for Service on Behalf of Personality and Social Psychology, and by three honorary doctorates.

Myers’ scientific articles have, with support from National Science Foun- dation grants, appeared in three dozen scientific periodicals, including Science, American Scientist, Psychological Science, and the American Psycholo- gist. In addition to his scholarly writing and his textbooks for introduc- tory and social psychology, he also digests psychological science for the general public. His writings have appeared in four dozen magazines, from Today’s Education to Scientific American. He also has authored five general audience books, including The Pursuit of Happiness and Intuition: Its Powers and Perils.

David Myers has chaired his city’s Human Relations Commission, helped found a thriving assistance center for families in poverty, and spoken to hundreds of college and community groups. Drawing on his experience, he also has written three dozen articles and a book (A Quiet World) about hearing loss, and he is advocating a transformation in American assis- tive listening technology (see www.hearingloop.org). For his leadership, he received an American Academy of Audiology Presidential Award in 2011, and the Hearing Loss Association of America Walter T. Ridder Award in 2012.

He bikes to work year-round and plays regular pick-up basketball. David and Carol Myers have raised two sons and a daughter, and have one granddaughter.

ABOUT THE AUTHORABOUT THE AUTHOR

vi

MyersEx9e_FM.indd viMyersEx9e_FM.indd vi 10/25/12 11:03 AM10/25/12 11:03 AM

 

 

PREFACE vii

BRIEF CONTENTS

Preface . . . xv

Time Management: Or, How to Be a Great Student and Still Have a Life . . . xxxiv

CHAPTER 1 Thinking Critically With Psychological Science . . . 1

CHAPTER 2 The Biology of Behavior . . . 35

CHAPTER 3 Consciousness and the Two-Track Mind . . . 77

CHAPTER 4 Developing Through the Life Span . . . 117

CHAPTER 5 Gender and Sexuality . . . 163

CHAPTER 6 Sensation and Perception . . . 191

CHAPTER 7 Learning . . . 237

CHAPTER 8 Memory . . . 271

CHAPTER 9 Thinking, Language, and Intelligence . . . 305

CHAPTER 10 Motivation and Emotion . . . 351

CHAPTER 11 Stress, Health, and Human Flourishing . . . 389

CHAPTER 12 Personality . . . 423

CHAPTER 13 Social Psychology . . . 457

CHAPTER 14 Psychological Disorders . . . 505

CHAPTER 15 Therapy . . . 545

APPENDIX A Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life . . . A-1

APPENDIX B Psychology at Work . . . B-1

APPENDIX C Subfi elds of Psychology . . . C-1

APPENDIX D Complete Chapter Reviews . . . D-1

APPENDIX E Answers to Experience the Testing Effect Questions . . . E-1

Glossary . . . G-1

References . . . R-1

Name Index . . . NI-1

Subject Index . . . SI-1 vii

MyersEx9e_FM.indd viiMyersEx9e_FM.indd vii 10/25/12 11:03 AM10/25/12 11:03 AM

 

 

Preface . . . xv

Time Management: Or, How to Be a Great Student and Still Have a Life . . . xxxiv

Thinking Critically With Psychological Science . . . 1

CHAPTER1 What Is Psychology? . . . 2

Psychology’s Roots . . . 2

Contemporary Psychology . . . 5 Psychology’s Biggest Question . . . 5

Psychology’s Three Main Levels of Analysis . . . 6

Psychology’s Subfi elds . . . 8

The Need for Psychological Science . . . 10 What About Intuition and Common Sense? . . . 10

The Scientifi c Attitude: Curious, Skeptical, and Humble . . . 13

Critical Thinking . . . 15

How Do Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions? . . . 15

The Scientifi c Method . . . 15

Description . . . 17

Correlation . . . 20

Experimentation . . . 22

Frequently Asked Questions About Psychology . . . 25

Improve Your Retention—and Your Grades . . . 29

The Biology of Behavior . . . 35

CHAPTER2 Biology and Behavior . . . 36

Neural Communication . . . 36 Neurons . . . 36

The Neural Impulse . . . 37

How Neurons Communicate . . . 38

How Neurotransmitters Infl uence Us . . . 40

The Nervous System . . . 41 The Peripheral Nervous System . . . 42

The Central Nervous System . . . 44

The Endocrine System . . . 45

The Brain . . . 46 Older Brain Structures . . . 47

CLOSE UP: The Tools of Discovery—Having Our Head Examined . . . . 48

The Cerebral Cortex . . . 53

Our Divided Brain . . . 59

Right-Left Differences in the Intact Brain . . . 61

Behavior Genetics: Predicting Individual Differences . . . 62

Genes: Our Codes for Life . . . 62

Twins and Adoption Studies . . . 63

Gene-Environment Interaction . . . 67

Evolutionary Psychology: Understanding Human Nature . . . 68

Natural Selection and Adaptation . . . 69

Evolutionary Success Helps Explain Similarities . . . 70

viii

CONTENTSCONTENTS

MyersEx9e_FM.indd viiiMyersEx9e_FM.indd viii 10/25/12 11:03 AM10/25/12 11:03 AM

 

 

CONTENTS ix

Consciousness and the Two- Track Mind . . . 77

CHAPTER3 The Brain and Consciousness . . . 78

Dual Processing: The Two-Track Mind . . . 79

Selective Attention . . . 80

Sleep and Dreams . . . 83 Biological Rhythms and Sleep . . . 83

Sleep Theories . . . 88

Sleep Deprivation and Sleep Disorders . . . 89

Dreams . . . 93

Hypnosis . . . 97 Frequently Asked Questions About Hypnosis . . . 97

Explaining the Hypnotized State . . . 98

Drugs and Consciousness . . . 100 Tolerance, Dependence, and Addiction . . . 100

THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: Addiction . . . 101

Types of Psychoactive Drugs . . . 102

Infl uences on Drug Use . . . 109

Developing Through the Life Span . . . 117

CHAPTER4 Developmental Psychology’s Major Issues . . . 118

Prenatal Development and the Newborn . . . 118 Conception . . . 118

Prenatal Development . . . 119

The Competent Newborn . . . 120

Infancy and Childhood . . . 121 Physical Development . . . 121

Cognitive Development . . . 124

CLOSE UP: Autism and “Mind-Blindness” . . . 130

Social Development . . . 132

Refl ections on Nature and Nurture . . . 139

Adolescence . . . 140 Physical Development . . . 140

Cognitive Development . . . 141

Social Development . . . 143

THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: How Much Credit or Blame Do Parents Deserve? . . . 147

Emerging Adulthood . . . 148

Refl ections on Continuity and Stages . . . 149

Adulthood . . . 150 Physical Development . . . 150

Cognitive Development . . . 153

Social Development . . . 154

Refl ections on Stability and Change . . . 158

Gender and Sexuality . . . 163

CHAPTER5 Gender Development . . . 164

Genes: How Are We Alike? How Do We Differ? . . . 164

The Nature of Gender: Our Biology . . . 167

The Nurture of Gender: Our Culture . . . 169

Human Sexuality . . . 171 The Physiology of Sex . . . 171

The Psychology of Sex . . . 175

CLOSE UP: The Sexualization of Girls . . . 177

MyersEx9e_FM.indd ixMyersEx9e_FM.indd ix 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM

 

 

x CONTENTS

Sexual Orientation . . . 178 Environment and Sexual Orientation . . . 179

Biology and Sexual Orientation . . . 180

An Evolutionary Explanation of Human Sexuality . . . 183

Gender Differences in Sexuality . . . 183

Natural Selection and Mating Preferences . . . 184

Critiquing the Evolutionary Perspective . . . 185

Refl ections on Gender, Sexuality, and Nature–Nurture Interaction . . . 185

Sensation and Perception . . . 191

CHAPTER6 Basic Principles of Sensation and Perception . . . 192

Transduction . . . 192

Thresholds. . . 193

THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: Can Subliminal Messages Control Our Behavior? . . . 195

Sensory Adaptation . . . 196

Perceptual Set . . . 197

Context Effects . . . 198

Emotion and Motivation . . . 199

Vision . . . 200 The Stimulus Input: Light Energy . . . 200

The Eye . . . 200

Visual Information Processing . . . 202

Color Vision . . . 206

Visual Organization . . . 208

Visual Interpretation . . . 214

Hearing . . . 216 The Stimulus Input: Sound Waves . . . 216

The Ear. . . 216

The Other Senses . . . 220 Touch . . . 220

Pain . . . 220

Taste . . . 224

Smell . . . 225

Body Position and Movement . . . 227

Sensory Interaction . . . 227 THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: ESP—Perception

Without Sensation? . . . 230

Learning . . . 237

CHAPTER7 How Do We Learn? . . . 238

Classical Conditioning . . . 239 Pavlov’s Experiments . . . 240

Pavlov’s Legacy . . . 244

Operant Conditioning . . . 246 Skinner’s Experiments . . . 246

Skinner’s Legacy . . . 253

CLOSE UP: Training Our Partners . . . 255

Contrasting Classical and Operant Conditioning . . . 255

Biology, Cognition, and Learning . . . 256 Biological Constraints on Conditioning . . . 256

Cognition’s Infl uence on Conditioning . . . 259

Learning by Observation . . . 261 Mirrors and Imitation in the Brain . . . 262

Applications of Observational Learning . . . 263

THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: Does Viewing Media Violence Trigger Violent Behavior? . . . 265

MyersEx9e_FM.indd xMyersEx9e_FM.indd x 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM

 

 

CONTENTS xi

Memory . . . 271

CHAPTER8 Studying Memory . . . 272

Memory Models . . . 273

Building Memories: Encoding . . . 274 Dual-Track Memory: Effortful Versus Automatic

Processing . . . 274

Automatic Processing and Implicit Memories . . . 275

Effortful Processing and Explicit Memories . . . 275

Memory Storage . . . 280 Retaining Information in the Brain . . . 281

Synaptic Changes . . . 283

Retrieval: Getting Information Out . . . 285 Measuring Retention . . . 285

Retrieval Cues . . . 286

Forgetting . . . 289 Forgetting and the Two-Track Mind . . . 290

Encoding Failure . . . 291

Storage Decay . . . 291

Retrieval Failure . . . 292

Memory Construction Errors . . . 294 Misinformation and Imagination Effects . . . 295

Source Amnesia . . . 296

Discerning True and False Memories . . . 297

Children’s Eyewitness Recall . . . 297

Repressed or Constructed Memories of Abuse? . . . 298

Improving Memory . . . 299

Thinking, Language, and Intelligence . . . 305

CHAPTER9 Thinking . . . 306

Concepts . . . 306

Problem Solving: Strategies and Obstacles . . . 307

Forming Good and Bad Decisions and Judgments . . . 308

THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: The Fear Factor—Why We Fear the Wrong Things . . . 310

Thinking Creatively . . . 314

CLOSE UP: Fostering Your Own Creativity . . . 315

Do Other Species Share Our Cognitive Skills? . . . 316

Language . . . 318 Language Structure . . . 318

Language Development . . . 319

The Brain and Language . . . 322

Do Other Species Have Language? . . . 323

Thinking and Language . . . 326 Language Infl uences Thinking . . . 326

Thinking in Images . . . 328

Intelligence . . . 329 What Is Intelligence? . . . 329

Assessing Intelligence . . . 333

Aging and Intelligence . . . 337

CLOSE UP: Extremes of Intelligence . . . 338

Genetic and Environmental Infl uences on Intelligence . . . 339

Group Differences in Intelligence Test Scores . . . 342

MyersEx9e_FM.indd xiMyersEx9e_FM.indd xi 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM

 

 

xii CONTENTS

Motivation and Emotion . . . 351

CHAPTER10 Motivational Concepts . . . 352

Instincts and Evolutionary Psychology . . . 352

Drives and Incentives . . . 353

Optimum Arousal . . . 353

A Hierarchy of Motives . . . 355

Hunger . . . 356 The Physiology of Hunger . . . 357

The Psychology of Hunger . . . 359

Obesity and Weight Control . . . 361

CLOSE UP: Waist Management . . . 363

The Need to Belong . . . 364 The Benefi ts of Belonging . . . 364

The Pain of Being Shut Out . . . 365

Connecting and Social Networking . . . 367

CLOSE UP: Managing Your Social Networking . . . 369

Achievement Motivation . . . 370

Emotion: Arousal, Behavior, and Cognition . . . 371

Historical Emotion Theories . . . 372

Schachter–Singer Two Factor Theory: Arousal + Label = Emotion . . . 373

Zajonc, LeDoux, and Lazarus: Does Cognition Always Precede Emotion? . . . 374

Embodied Emotion . . . 376 The Basic Emotions . . . 376

Emotions and the Autonomic Nervous System . . . 377

The Physiology of Emotions . . . 377

THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: Lie Detection . . . 379

Expressed and Experienced Emotion . . . 378 Detecting Emotion in Others . . . 379

Gender and Emotion . . . 381

Culture and Emotion . . . 382

The Effects of Facial Expressions . . . 384

Stress, Health, and Human Flourishing . . . 389

CHAPTER11 Stress and Health . . . 390

Stress: Some Basic Concepts . . . 390

Stress and Illness . . . 394

CLOSE UP: Tips for Handling Anger . . . 398

Coping With Stress . . . 401 Personal Control . . . 401

Optimism Versus Pessimism . . . 404

Social Support . . . 405

CLOSE UP: Pets Are Friends, Too . . . 408

Reducing Stress . . . 407 Aerobic Exercise . . . 407

Relaxation and Meditation . . . 409

Faith Communities and Health . . . 410

Happiness . . . 412 Positive Psychology . . . 413

What Affects Our Well-Being? . . . 414

What Predicts Our Happiness Levels? . . . 417

CLOSE UP: Want to Be Happier? . . . 418

MyersEx9e_FM.indd xiiMyersEx9e_FM.indd xii 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM

 

 

CONTENTS xiii

Personality . . . 423

CHAPTER12 The Psychodynamic Theories . . . 424

Freud’s Psychoanalytic Perspective: Exploring the Unconscious . . . 424

The Neo-Freudian and Psychodynamic Theorists . . . 424

Assessing Unconscious Processes . . . 424

Evaluating Freud’s Psychoanalytic Perspective and Modern Views of the Unconscious . . . 424

Humanistic Theories . . . 432 Abraham Maslow’s Self-Actualizing Person . . . 433

Carl Rogers’ Person-Centered Perspective . . . 433

Assessing the Self . . . 434

Evaluating Humanistic Theories . . . 434

Trait Theories . . . 435 Exploring Traits . . . 436

Assessing Traits . . . 437

THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: How to Be a “Successful” Astrologer or Palm Reader . . . 438

The Big Five Factors . . . 439

Evaluating Trait Theories . . . 441

Social-Cognitive Theories . . . 443 Reciprocal Infl uences . . . 443

Assessing Behavior in Situations . . . 445

Evaluating Social-Cognitive Theories . . . 445

Exploring the Self . . . 446 The Benefi ts of Self-Esteem . . . 447

Self-Serving Bias . . . 448

Culture and the Self . . . 450

Social Psychology . . . 457

CHAPTER13 Social Thinking . . . 458

The Fundamental Attribution Error . . . 458

Attitudes and Actions . . . 460

Social Infl uence . . . 463 Cultural Infl uences . . . 463

Conformity: Complying With Social Pressures . . . 465

Obedience: Following Orders . . . 467

Group Behavior . . . 471

Social Relations . . . 475 Prejudice . . . 476

CLOSE UP: Automatic Prejudice . . . 477

Aggression . . . 481

Attraction . . . 487

CLOSE UP: Online Matchmaking and Speed Dating . . . 488

Altruism . . . 493

Confl ict and Peacemaking . . . 496

Psychological Disorders . . . 505

CHAPTER14 What Is a Psychological Disorder? . . . 506

Understanding Psychological Disorders . . . 506

MyersEx9e_FM.indd xiiiMyersEx9e_FM.indd xiii 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM

 

 

xiv CONTENTS

THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: ADHD—Normal High Energy or Genuine Disorder? . . . 507

Classifying Disorders—and Labeling People . . . 509

THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT: Insanity and Responsibility . . . 512

Anxiety Disorders . . . 512 Generalized Anxiety Disorder . . . 513

Panic Disorder . . . 513

Phobias . . . 513

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder . . . 514

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder . . . 515

Understanding Anxiety Disorders . . . 516

Mood Disorders . . . 519 Major Depressive Disorder . . . 520

Bipolar Disorder . . . 520

Understanding Mood Disorders . . . 521

CLOSE UP: Suicide and Self-Injury . . . 524

Schizophrenia . . . 528 Symptoms of Schizophrenia . . . 528

Onset and Development of Schizophrenia . . . 529

Understanding Schizophrenia . . . 530

Other Disorders . . . 534 Dissociative Disorders . . . 534

Eating Disorders . . . 536

Personality Disorders . . . 537

Rates of Psychological Disorders . . . 540

Therapy . . . 545

CHAPTER15 Treating Psychological Disorders . . . 546

The Psychological Therapies . . . 546 Psychoanalysis and Psychodynamic

Therapy . . . 547

Humanistic Therapies . . . 548

Behavior Therapies . . . 550

Cognitive Therapies . . . 554

Group and Family Therapies . . . 557

Evaluating Psychotherapies . . . 559 Is Psychotherapy Effective? . . . 560

Which Psychotherapies Work Best? . . . 562

Evaluating Alternative Therapies . . . 563

How Do Psychotherapies Help People? . . . 565

Culture and Values in Psychotherapy . . . 566

CLOSE UP: A Consumer’s Guide to Mental Health Professionals . . . 567

The Biomedical Therapies . . . 568 Drug Therapies . . . 568

Brain Stimulation . . . 571

Psychosurgery . . . 574

Therapeutic Lifestyle Change . . . 574

Preventing Psychological Disorders . . . 576 Resilience . . . 576

Creating Healthy Environments . . . 577

APPENDIX A: Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life . . . A-1

APPENDIX B: Psychology at Work . . . B-1

APPENDIX C: Subfi elds of Psychology . . . C-1

APPENDIX D: Complete Chapter Reviews . . . D-1

APPENDIX E: Answers to Experience the Testing Effect Questions . . . E-1

Glossary . . . G-1

References . . . R-1

Name Index . . . NI-1

Subject Index . . . SI-1

MyersEx9e_FM.indd xivMyersEx9e_FM.indd xiv 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM

 

 

PREFACE

Throughout its nine editions, my unwavering vision for Exploring Psychology has been to merge rigorous science with a broad human perspective that engages both mind and heart. I aim to offer a state-of-the-art introduction to psychological science that speaks to students’ needs and interests. I aspire to help students understand and appreciate the wonders of their everyday lives. And I seek to convey the inquisitive spirit with which psychologists do psychology.

I am genuinely enthusiastic about psychology and its applicability to our lives. Psychological science has the potential to expand our minds and enlarge our hearts. By studying and applying its tools, ideas, and insights, we can supplement our intuition with critical thinking, restrain our judgmentalism with compas- sion, and replace our illusions with understanding. By the time students complete this guided tour of psychology, they will also, I hope, have a deeper understand- ing of our moods and memories, about the reach of our unconscious, about how we f lourish and struggle, about how we perceive our physical and social worlds, and about how our biology and culture in turn shape us. (See TABLES 1 and 2, next page.)

Believing with Thoreau that “anything living is easily and naturally expressed in popular language,” I seek to communicate psychology’s scholarship with crisp narra- tive and vivid storytelling. “A writer’s job,” says my friend Mary Pipher, “is to tell stories that connect readers to all the people on Earth, to show these people as the complicated human beings they really are, with histories, families, emotions, and legitimate needs.” Writing as a solo author, I hope to tell psychology’s story in a way that is warmly personal as well as rigorously scientific. I love to ref lect on connec- tions between psychology and other realms, such as literature, philosophy, history, sports, religion, politics, and popular culture. And I love to provoke thought, to play with words, and to laugh. For his pioneering 1891 Principles of Psychology, William James sought “humor and pathos.” And so do I.

I am grateful for the privilege of assisting with the teaching of this mind- expanding discipline to so many students, in so many countries, through so many different languages. To be entrusted with discerning and communicating psychol- ogy’s insights is both an exciting honor and a great responsibility.

Creating this book is a team sport. Like so many human achievements, it is the product of a collective intelligence. Woodrow Wilson spoke for me: “I not only use all the brains I have, but all I can borrow.” The thousands of instructors and millions of students across the globe who have taught or studied (or both!) with this book have contributed immensely to its development. Much of this contribu- tion has occurred spontaneously, through correspondence and conversations. For this edition, we also formally involved 1061 researchers and teaching psycholo- gists, and 251 students, in our efforts to gather accurate and up-to-date information about the f ield of psychology and the content, study aids, and supplements needs of instructors and students in the introductory course. We look forward to continuing feedback as we strive, over future editions, to create an ever better book and teach- ing package.

What’s NEW? This ninth edition is the most carefully reworked and extensively updated of all the revisions to date. This new edition features improvements to the organization and presentation, especially to our system of supporting student learning and remembering.

xv

MyersEx9e_FM.indd xvMyersEx9e_FM.indd xv 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM

 

 

xvi PREFACE

TABLE 1 Evolutionary Psychology and Behavior Genetics

The evolutionary perspective is covered on the following pages:

TABLE 2 Neuroscience

In addition to the coverage found in Chapter 2, neuroscience can be found on the following pages:

Aggression, pp. 482–483 Aging: physical exercise and the brain, p. 152 Animal language, pp. 316–317 Antisocial personality disorder, pp. 538–539 Arousal, pp. 175–176 Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

(ADHD) and the brain, p. 507 Autism, pp. 130–131 Automatic prejudice: amygdala, p. 477 Biofeedback, p. 409 Biopsychosocial approach, pp. 6–7

aggression, p. 487 aging, pp. 152, 157, 291 dementia and Alzheimer’s, p. 284 development, pp. 186–187 dreams, pp. 93–94 drug use, pp. 109–112 emotion, pp. 141, 283, 374–375, 378,

381–382 hypnosis, pp. 99–100 learning, pp. 256–260 pain, pp. 222–223 personality, p. 444 psychological disorders, p. 508 sleep, pp. 83–88 therapeutic lifestyle change, pp. 574–575

Brain development: adolescence, p. 140 experience and, pp. 122–123 infancy and childhood, p. 124 sexual differentiation in utero, p. 169

Brain stimulation therapies, pp. 572–573

Cognitive neuroscience, pp. 4, 78 Drug dependence, pp. 109–111 Emotion and cognition, pp. 371–372 Emotional intelligence and brain damage,

p. 333 Fear learning, p. 518 Fetal alcohol syndrome and brain abnor-

malities, p. 120 Hallucinations: pp. 107–108 Hallucinations and:

near-death experiences, pp. 107–108 schizophrenia, p. 529 sleep, p. 95

Hormones and: abuse, pp. 136–137 appetite, pp. 357–358 development, p. 167 in adolescents, pp. 167, 140–141 of sexual characteristics, pp. 167–168 emotion, pp. 378–379 gender, p. 167 sex, pp. 150–151 sexual behavior, pp. 171–173 stress, pp. 377, 391–393, 394–396, 405 weight control, p. 359

Hunger, p. 357 Insight, pp. 307–308 Intelligence, p. 334

creativity, pp. 314–315 twins, pp. 339–340

Language, pp. 318, 322–323 and deafness, p. 322 and thinking in images, p. 328

Light-exposure therapy: brain scans, p. 564 Meditation, pp. 409–410 Memory:

emotional memories, p. 283 explicit memories, pp. 281–282 implicit memories, pp. 282–283 physical storage of, pp. 280–282 and sleep, pp. 88, 95 and synaptic changes, pp. 283–285

Mirror neurons, pp. 262–263 Neuroscience perspective, defined, p. 7 Neurotransmitters and:

anxiety disorders, pp. 518, 569 biomedical therapy:

depression, pp. 523–525, 569–570 ECT, pp. 571–572 schizophrenia, pp. 530, 568–569

child abuse, p. 137 cognitive-behavioral therapy: obsessive-

compulsive disorder, p. 557 depression, pp. 523–525 drugs, pp. 100, 102 exercise, p. 407 narcolepsy, pp. 92–93 schizophrenia, pp. 530, 532

Observational learning and brain imaging, p. 261

Optimum arousal: brain mechanisms for rewards, pp. 353–355

Orgasm, p. 173 Pain, p. 220

phantom limb pain, p. 222 virtual reality, pp. 223–224

Parallel vs. serial processing, p. 205 Perception:

brain damage and, p. 205 color vision, pp. 206–208 feature detection, p. 204 transduction, p. 192 visual information processing,

pp. 200–202 Perceptual organization, pp. 208–211 Personality and brain-imaging, p. 437 Post-traumatic stress disorder

(PTSD) and the limbic system, pp. 515–516

Psychosurgery: lobotomy, p. 574 Schizophrenia and brain abnormalities,

pp. 530–531, 532 Sensation:

body position and movement, p. 227 deafness, pp. 217–218 hearing, pp. 216–217 sensory adaptation, p. 196 smell, pp. 225–226 taste, pp. 224–225 touch, p. 220 vision, p. 200

Sexual orientation, pp. 180, 182 Sleep:

cognitive development and, p. 96 memory and, p. 88 recuperation during, p. 88

Smell and emotion, p. 226 Unconscious mind, pp. 431–432

Aging, pp. 151–152 Anxiety disorders, p. 518 Biological predispositions:

in learning, pp. 256–260 in operant conditioning, pp. 258–260

Brainstem, p. 47 Consciousness, p. 78 Darwin, Charles, p. 6 Depression and light exposure therapy, p. 564 Emotion, effects of facial expressions and,

pp. 384–385 Emotional expression, pp. 382–383 Evolutionary perspective, defined, p. 7 Exercise, pp. 407–408 Fear, p. 310 Feature detection, p. 204 Hearing, p. 216 Hunger and taste preference, p. 359 Instincts, p. 352 Intelligence, pp. 329–331, 333–334,

343–346 Language, pp. 318–319, 320–322 Love, pp. 154–156 Math and spatial ability, pp. 342–343 Mating preferences, pp. 184–185 Menopause, pp. 150–151 Need to belong, p. 364 Obesity, p. 461

Overconfidence, pp. 311–312 Perceptual adaptation, p. 215 Puberty, onset of, pp. 148–149 Sensation, p. 192 Sensory adaptation, p. 196 Sexual orientation, p. 181 Sexuality, pp. 173, 183–184 Sleep, pp. 84, 88 Smell, pp. 225–226 Taste, pp. 224–225

See also Chapter 2, The Biology of Behavior.

Abuse, intergenerational transmission of, p. 264

Adaptability, p. 53 Aggression, pp. 579–580

intergenerational transmission of, p. 264 Autism, pp. 130–131 Behavior genetics perspective, p. 7 Biological perspective, p. 36 Brain plasticity, p. 58 Continuity and stages, p. 149 Deprivation of attachment, p. 136 Depth perception, p. 210 Development, p. 119 Drives and incentives, p. 353 Drug dependence, p. 110 Drug use, pp. 109–112 Eating disorders, p. 536 Epigenetics, p. 120 Happiness, pp. 412–413 Hunger and taste preference, pp. 359–360 Intelligence:

Down syndrome, pp. 338–339 genetic and environmental influences,

pp. 339–346 Learning, pp. 256–257, 258–259 Motor development, p. 123 Nature–nurture, pp. 5–6

twins, p. 6

Obesity and weight control, pp. 361–362 Parenting styles, p. 138 Perception, pp. 214–215 Personality traits, p. 437–440 Psychological disorders and:

ADHD, p. 507 anxiety disorders, p. 517 biopsychosocial approach, p. 508 depression, p. 523 insanity and responsibility, p. 512 mood disorders, pp. 523–524 personality disorders, pp. 538–539 post-traumatic stress syndrome,

pp. 515–516 schizophrenia, pp. 531–533

Reward deficiency syndrome, p. 52 Romantic love, pp. 154–156 Sexual disorders, pp. 173–174 Sexual orientation, p. 180 Sexuality, p. 173 Sleep patterns, p. 87 Smell, pp. 225–226 Stress, personality, and illness, pp. 397–399

managing stress with exercise, pp. 407–409 Traits, pp. 341-342

See also Chapter 2, The Biology of Behavior.

TTT

Behavior genetics is covered on the following pages:

MyersEx9e_FM.indd xviMyersEx9e_FM.indd xvi 10/25/12 11:04 AM10/25/12 11:04 AM

 

 

PREFACE xvii

NEW Study System Follows Best Practices From Learning and Memory Research The new learning system harnesses the testing effect, which documents the benefits of actively retrieving information through self-testing (FIGURE 1). Thus, each chap- ter now offers 15 to 20 new Retrieve It questions interspersed throughout. Creating these desirable difficulties for students along the way optimizes the testing effect, as does immediate feedback (via inverted answers beneath each question).

In addition, each main section of text begins with numbered questions that establish learning objectives and direct student reading. The Chapter Review section repeats these questions as a further self-testing opportunity (with answers in the Complete Chapter Reviews appendix). The Chapter Review section also offers a page-referenced list of key terms and concepts, and new Experience the Testing Effect questions in multiple formats to promote optimal retention.

FIGURE 1 Testing effect For suggestions of how students may apply the testing effect to their own learning, watch this 5-minute YouTube animation: www.tinyurl.com/HowToRemember

Nearly 1000 New Research Citations My ongoing scrutiny of dozens of scientific periodicals and science news sources, enhanced by commissioned reviews and countless e-mails from instructors and students, enables my integrating our field’s most important, thought-provoking, and student-relevant new discoveries. Part of the pleasure that sustains this work is learning something new every day! (For a complete list of significant changes to the content, see www.worthpub.com/myers.)

Reorganized Chapters In addition to the new study