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Psychology Applied

to Modern Life ADJUSTMENT IN THE 21ST CENTURY

TWELFTH EDITION

Wayne Weiten University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Dana S. Dunn Moravian College

Elizabeth Yost Hammer Xavier University of Louisiana

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© 2018, 2015

 

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Psychology Applied to Modern Life Adjustment in the 21st Century,

Wayne Weiten, Dana S. Dunn, Elizabeth Yost Hammer

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To two pillars of stability in this era

of turmoil—my parents

W.W.

To the memory of my mother,

Dah Kennedy Dunn, and brother,

James L. Dunn, Jr.

D.S.D.

To Elliott, of course

E.Y.H.

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iv

WAYNE WEITEN is a graduate of Bradley University and received his Ph.D. in social psychology from the University of Illinois, Chicago, in 1981. He has taught at the College of

DuPage and Santa Clara University, and currently teaches at the University of Nevada, Las

Vegas. He has received distinguished teaching awards from Division Two of the American

Psychological Association (APA) and from the College of DuPage. He is a Fellow of Divi-

sions 1, 2, and 8 of the American Psychological Association and a Fellow of the Midwestern

Psychological Association. In 1991, he helped chair the APA National Conference on

Enhancing the Quality of Undergraduate Education in Psychology. He is a former presi-

dent of the Society for the Teaching of Psychology and the Rocky Mountain Psychological

Association. In 2006, one of the six national teaching awards given annually by the Society

for the Teaching of Psychology was named in his honor. Weiten has conducted research

on a wide range of topics, including educational measurement, jury decision making,

attribution theory, pressure as a form of stress, and the technology of textbooks. He is also

the author of Psychology: Themes & Variations (Cengage, 2017, 10th edition). Weiten has

created an educational CD-ROM titled PsykTrek: A Multimedia Introduction to Psychology,

and he recently coauthored a chapter on the introductory psychology course for The Oxford

Handbook of Undergraduate Psychology Education (Weiten & Houska, 2015).

DANA S. DUNN earned his B.A. in psychology from Carnegie Mellon and received his Ph.D. in social psychology from the University of Virginia. He is currently professor of

psychology at Moravian College in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. He chaired the psychology

department at Moravian for six years. A Fellow of the Association for Psychological Science

(APS) and the American Psychological Association (Divisions 1, 2, and 22), Dunn served

as president of the Society for the Teaching of Psychology in 2010. A frequent speaker at

national and regional disciplinary conferences, Dunn has written numerous articles, chap-

ters, and book reviews concerning his areas of research interest: the teaching of psychology,

social psychology, rehabilitation psychology, and educational assessment. He is the author

or editor for thirty books, including Pursuing Human Strengths: A Positive Psychology Guide

(2016), The Social Psychology of Disability (2015), and The Oxford Handbook of Undergrad-

uate Psychology Education (2015). In 2013, Dunn received the Charles L. Brewer Award for

Distinguished Teaching of Psychology from the American Psychological Foundation.

ELIZABETH YOST HAMMER earned her B.S. in psychology from Troy State University and received her Ph.D. in experimental social psychology from Tulane University. She is

currently the Kellogg Professor in Teaching in the Psychology Department and Director of

the Center for the Advancement of Teaching and Faculty Development (CAT+) at Xavier

University of Louisiana in New Orleans. Her work in CAT+ includes organizing pedagog-

ical workshops and faculty development initiatives. She is a Fellow of Division Two of the

American Psychological Association and is a past president of Psi Chi, the International

Honor Society in Psychology. She has served as the treasurer for the Society for the Teach-

ing of Psychology. She is passionate about teaching and has published on collaborative

learning, service learning, the application of social psychological theories to the classroom,

and mentoring students.

About the Authors

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v

Philosophy

A certain philosophy is inherent in any systematic treatment of

the topic of adjustment. Our philosophy can be summarized as

follows:

● We believe that an adjustment text should be a resource

book for students. We have tried to design this book so that it

encourages and facilitates the pursuit of additional information

on adjustment-related topics. It should serve as a point of

departure for more learning. ● We believe in theoretical eclecticism. This book will not

indoctrinate your students along the lines of any single theoretical

orientation. The psychodynamic, behavioral, and humanistic

schools of thought are all treated with respect, as are cognitive,

biological, cultural, evolutionary, and other perspectives. ● We believe that effective adjustment requires taking

charge of one’s own life. Throughout the book we try to

promote the notion that active coping efforts are generally

superior to passivity and complacency.

Changes in the Twelfth Edition

One of the exciting things about psychology is that it is not a

stagnant discipline. It continues to progress at what seems a

faster and faster pace. A good textbook must evolve with the

discipline. Although the professors and students who used

the earlier editions of this book did not clamor for change,

we have made countless content changes to keep up with new

developments in psychology—adding and deleting some topics,

condensing and reorganizing others, and updating everything

(there are more than 1200 new references). A brief overview of

some of these changes, listed chapter-by-chapter, can be found

on pages viii–xii following this preface.

The most significant change in this edition is the addition

of a feature we call Spotlight on Research. Each chapter has one

Spotlight on Research, which provides a detailed but brief sum-

mary of a particular piece of research. Showing research meth-

ods in action should improve students’ understanding of the

research process.

In addition to this new feature, we have strived to

enhance the pedagogical value of our photo program by pairing

each photo with an explanatory caption and eliminating pho-

tos that were largely decorative. To increase the clarity of the

book’s organization, we now number all the major headings in

the chapters. Moreover, we made a concerted effort to achieve

more succinct writing. The manuscript length of each chapter

(in words) has been reduced by 10% to 17%.

This reduction in length allowed us to move to a dramati-

cally different book design, which for the first time is mostly a

Many students enter adjustment courses with great expecta-

tions. They’ve ambled through their local bookstores, and in

the “Psychology” section they’ve seen numerous self-help books

that offer highly touted recipes for achieving happiness for a

mere $15.95. After paying far more money to enroll in a college

course that deals with the same issues as the self-help books,

many students expect a revelatory experience. However, the

majority of us with professional training in psychology or coun-

seling take a rather dim view of self-help books and the pop psy-

chology they represent. Psychologists tend to see this literature

as oversimplified, intellectually dishonest, and opportunistic

and often summarily dismiss the pop psychology that so many

students have embraced. Instructors try to supplant pop psy-

chology with more sophisticated academic psychology based on

current scholarship, which is more complex and less accessible.

In this textbook, we have tried to come to grips with the

problem of differing expectations between student and teacher.

Our goal has been to produce a comprehensive, serious,

research-oriented treatment of the topic of adjustment that also

acknowledges the existence of popular psychology and looks crit-

ically at its contributions. Our approach involves the following:

● In Chapter 1 we confront the phenomenon of popular self-

help books. We take students beneath the seductive surface of

such books and analyze some of their typical flaws. Our goal

is to make students more critical consumers of this type of

literature by encouraging them to focus on substance, not on

trendy claims. ● While encouraging a more critical attitude toward self-

help books, we do not suggest that all should be dismissed.

Instead, we acknowledge that some of them offer authentic

insights. With this in mind, we highlight some of the better

books in this genre in Recommended Reading boxes sprinkled

throughout the text. These recommended books tie in with the

adjacent topical coverage and show the student the interface

between academic and popular psychology. ● We try to provide the student with a better appreciation of

the merits of the empirical approach to understanding behavior.

This effort to clarify the role of research, which is rare for an

adjustment text, appears in the first chapter. ● Recognizing that adjustment students want to leave the

course with concrete, personally useful information, we end

each chapter with an Application section. The Applications are

“how to” discussions that address everyday problems students

encounter. While they focus on issues that are relevant to the

content of the particular chapter, they contain more explicit

advice than the text proper.

In summary, we have tried to make this book both challeng-

ing and applied. We hope that our approach will help students

better appreciate the value and use of scientific psychology.

To the Instructor

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vi To the Instructor

seen in journal articles, followed by critical thinking questions.

The intent is to foster understanding of how empirical studies

are conducted and to enhance students’ ability to think critically

about research while also giving them a painless introduction to

the basic format of journal articles. The Spotlights on Research

are fully incorporated into the flow of discourse in the text and

are not presented as optional boxes. Some examples of the topics

covered include:

● Stress-induced eating ● Hugs and social support ● Autism and vaccinations ● Internet therapy ● The effects of red clothing on attraction ● Oxytocin and fidelity

Applications

The end-of-chapter Applications should be of special interest to

most students. They are tied to chapter content in a way that

should show students how practical applications emerge out of

theory and research. Although some of the material covered in

these sections shows up frequently in adjustment texts, much

of it is unique. Some of the Applications include the following:

● Understanding Intimate Violence ● Improving Academic Performance ● Understanding Eating Disorders ● Getting Ahead in the Job Game ● Building Self-Esteem ● Enhancing Sexual Relationships ● Boosting One’s Own Happiness

Recommended Reading Boxes

Recognizing students’ interest in self-help books, we have

sifted through hundreds of them to identify some that may be

especially useful. These books are featured in boxes that briefly

review some of the higher-quality books, several of which were

published recently. These Recommended Reading boxes are

placed where they are germane to the material being covered

in the text. Some of the recommended books are well known,

whereas others are less so. Although we make it clear that we

don’t endorse every idea in every book, we think they all have

something worthwhile to offer. This feature replaces the conven-

tional suggested readings lists that usually appear at the ends of

chapters, where they are almost universally ignored by students.

Learn More Online

The Internet is rapidly altering the landscape of modern life, and

students clearly need help dealing with the information explo-

sion in cyberspace. To assist them, we have come up with some

recommendations regarding websites that appear to provide

reasonably accurate, balanced, and empirically sound infor-

mation. Short descriptions of these recommended Learn More

Online websites are dispersed throughout the chapters, adjacent

to related topical coverage. Because URLs change frequently,

single-column design. This approach results in a much cleaner,

open, student-friendly look. Instructors who know the book

will notice that quite a few new figures have been added and

that many familiar ones have been updated to resonate with the

book’s new look.

As already noted, we incorporated many new research cita-

tions into this edition in order to represent the expansion of the

psychological literature since the previous edition went to print.

At the same time, we were mindful about the problem posed

to student readers when they are confronted with too many

citations. Thus, at the same time that we added new references,

we carefully culled many older ones to control the density of

citations. So, even though we have added more than 1200 new

references, the total number of citations in the chapters has

declined by an average of 20%.

The online version of the text housed in MindTap fea-

tures a variety of other changes. In MindTap, each chapter

begins with an enticing engagement activity in which students

attempt to answer questions about four common myths about

behavior related to the chapter content. MindTap also incor-

porates twenty-six new Concept Clips, which are entertaining,

animated, graphic overviews of important concepts, complete

with audio narration. We are confident your students will

greatly enjoy this new pedagogical aid. Furthermore, for each

chapter, MindTap now provides three multiple-choice tests that

can be assigned as Practice Tests or scored as low-stakes tests.

Students’ scores on these tests can automatically flow into in-

structors’ electronic grade books. The MindTap version of the

text also includes two other valuable features—the Appendix

on Sustainability and the Reel Research boxes, which were

formerly found in the print book.

Writing Style

This book has been written with the student in mind. We have

tried to integrate the technical jargon of our discipline into a

relatively informal and down-to-earth writing style. We use

concrete examples extensively to clarify complex concepts and

to help maintain student interest. Although we now have three

authors, the original author of this book (Wayne Weiten) con-

tinues to do the final rewrite of all sixteen chapters to ensure

stylistic consistency.

Features

This text contains a number of features intended to stimulate

interest and enhance students’ learning. These special features

include the aforementioned Spotlights on Research, Applica-

tions, Recommended Reading boxes, Learn More Online boxes,

Practice Tests, a didactic illustration program, cartoons, and the

Personal Explorations Workbook.

Spotlights on Research

In each Spotlight on Research, an interesting study is presented

in the conventional purpose-method-results-discussion format

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To the Instructor vii

Learning Aids

A number of learning aids have been incorporated into the text

to help the reader digest the wealth of material:

● The outline at the beginning of each chapter provides the

student with a preview and overview of what will be covered. ● Headings are used extensively to keep material well

organized. ● To help alert your students to key points, learning objectives

are distributed throughout the chapters, after the main headings. ● Key terms are identified with blue italicized boldface type

to indicate that these are important vocabulary items that are

part of psychology’s technical language. ● An integrated running glossary provides an on-the-spot

definition of each key term as it is introduced in the text. These

formal definitions are printed in blue boldface type. ● An alphabetical glossary is found in the back of the book, as

key terms are usually defined in the integrated running glossary

only when they are first introduced. ● Italics are used liberally throughout the text to emphasize

important points. ● A chapter review is found at the end of each chapter. Each

review includes a concise summary of the chapter’s key ideas, a

list of the key terms that were introduced in the chapter, and a

list of important theorists and researchers who were discussed

in the chapter.

Supplementary Materials

A complete teaching/learning package has been developed to

supplement Psychology Applied to Modern Life. These supple-

mentary materials have been carefully coordinated to provide

effective support for the text. This package of supplementary

materials includes the Instructor’s Manual, Cognero®, online PowerPoints, and MindTap.

Instructor’s Manual

The Instructor’s Manual is available as a convenient aid for your

educational endeavors. It provides a thorough overview of each

chapter and includes a wealth of suggestions for lecture topics,

class demonstrations, exercises, and discussion questions, orga-

nized around the content of each chapter in the text.

Cengage Learning Testing Powered by Cognero®

Cengage Learning Testing Powered by Cognero® is a flexible, online system that allows you to import, edit, and manipulate

content from the text’s Test Bank or elsewhere, including your

own favorite test questions; create multiple test versions in an

instant; and deliver tests from your Course Management Sys-

tem, your classroom, or wherever you want.

The content, revised by Jeremy Houska of Centenary Col-

lege, is made up of an extensive collection of multiple-choice

questions for objective tests, all closely tied to the learning

objectives found in the text chapters. We’re confident that you

will find this to be a dependable and usable test bank.

we have not included them in the book. Insofar as students are

interested in visiting these sites, we recommend that they do

so by using a search engine such as Google to locate and access

the URLs.

Practice Tests

Each chapter ends with a ten-item multiple-choice Practice

Test that should give students a fairly realistic assessment of

their mastery of that chapter and valuable practice in taking the

type of test that many of them will face in the classroom (if the

instructor uses the Test Bank). This feature grew out of some

research on students’ use of textbook pedagogical devices (see

Weiten, Guadagno, & Beck, 1996). This research indicated that

students pay scant attention to some standard pedagogical de-

vices. When students were grilled to gain a better understand-

ing of this perplexing finding, it quickly became apparent that

students are pragmatic about pedagogy. Essentially, their refrain

was “We want study aids that will help us pass the next test.”

With this mandate in mind, we added the Practice Tests. They

should be very realistic, given many of the items came from the

Test Banks for previous editions (these items do not appear in

the Test Bank for the current edition).

Didactic Illustration Program

The illustration program is once again in full color, and as

already noted, many new figures have been added along with

extensive redrawing of many graphics. Although the illustra-

tions are intended to make the book attractive and to help main-

tain student interest, they are not merely decorative: They have

been carefully selected and crafted for their didactic value to

enhance the educational goals of the text.

Cartoons

A little comic relief usually helps keep a student interested,

so we’ve sprinkled numerous cartoons throughout the book.

Like the figures, these have been chosen to reinforce ideas in

the text.

Personal Explorations Workbook

As mentioned earlier, the Personal Explorations Workbook can

be found in the very back of the text. It contains experiential

exercises for each text chapter, designed to help your students

achieve personal insights. For each chapter, we have included

one Self-Assessment exercise and one Self-Reflection exercise.

The self-assessments are psychological tests or scales that stu-

dents can take and score for themselves. The self-reflections

consist of questions intended to help students think about them-

selves in relation to issues raised in the text. These exercises can

be invaluable homework assignments. To facilitate assigning

them as homework, we have printed the workbook section on

perforated paper, so students can tear out the relevant pages and

turn them in. In addition to providing easy-to-use homework

assignments, many of these exercises can be used in class to

stimulate lively discussion.

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Online PowerPoints

Vibrant Microsoft® PowerPoint® lecture slides for each chapter assist you with your lecture by providing concept coverage using

images, figures, and tables directly from the textbook.

MindTap

MindTap® is the digital learning solution that helps instruc- tors engage and transform today’s students into critical think-

ers. Through paths of dynamic assignments and applications

that you can personalize, real-time course analytics, and an

accessible reader, MindTap helps you turn cookie-cutter into

cutting-edge, apathy into engagement, and memorizers into

higher-level thinkers.

As an instructor using MindTap, you have at your fingertips

the right content and a unique set of tools curated specifically

for your course, all in an interface designed to improve work-

flow and save time when planning lessons and course structure.

The control to build and personalize your course is all yours,

focusing on the most relevant material while also lowering costs

for your students. Stay connected and informed in your course

through real-time student tracking that provides the opportu-

nity to adjust the course as needed based on analytics of interac-

tivity in the course.

Highlights of Content Changes in the Twelfth Edition

To help professors who have used this book over many editions,

we are providing an overview of the content changes in the cur-

rent edition. The following list is not exhaustive, but it should

alert faculty to most of the major changes in the book.

CHAPTER 1: Adjusting to Modern Life New discussion of how leisure time and sleep have declined in our

fast-paced modern society

Updated information on the likelihood of choice overload

New discussion of possession overload and compulsive buying syndrome

New coverage of escalating financial stress and how materialism undermines well-being

New coverage of “affluenza” and its societal repercussions

New Spotlight on Research provides an example of naturalistic observation focusing on how larger plate sizes lead to increased eating at real-world buffets

New example of case study research evaluating anxiety and depres- sive disorders as risk factors for dementia

New example of survey research describes a Danish study on age trends in the experience of hangovers after binge drinking

New example of how correlational methods broaden the scope of phenomena that can be studied

New discussion of how subjective well-being is predictive of impor- tant life outcomes

New research on how spending on experiences rather than material goods, and on others rather than oneself, are associated with greater happiness

New data on gender and happiness

Revised coverage of the association between social relations and subjective well-being

New coverage of the link between leisure activity and subjective well-being

New data on how many students embrace flawed models of how they learn and remember

New discussion of how students overestimate their ability to multi- task while studying

Revised discussion of the value of text highlighting in the coverage of study skills

New research on how surfing the Internet in class undermines academic performance and distracts fellow students

New research showing that taking notes on a laptop leads to shallower processing and reduced learning

New findings on test-enhanced learning

CHAPTER 2: Theories of Personality New data on Big Five correlates of income, entrepreneurial activity,

and longevity

New research relating reduced reliance on defense mechanisms to progress in therapy

New overview of empirical findings on the functions and health consequences of defensive behavior

New research on the effects of a repressive coping style

New discussion of how psychoanalytic theories depend too heavily on case studies

New summary of contradictory evidence related to Freudian theory

New research on the correlates of self-efficacy

New research supporting a key tenet of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

New meta-analytic findings on the heritability of personality

New findings on correlations between personality traits and repro- ductive fitness

New research relating narcissism to behavior on social media sites

New research relating narcissism to empathy, consumer preferences, and social class

New coverage of the distinction between grandiose narcissism and vulnerable narcissism

New findings on gender differences in narcissism

Revised assessment of the cross-cultural universality of the five- factor model

New data on the inaccuracy of perceptions of national character

New coverage of individualism versus collectivism in relation to self-enhancement

New featured study on individualism, collectivism, and the accuracy of self-perceptions

New, more favorable meta-analytic findings on the validity of Rorschach scoring

New discussion of the public exposure of the Rorschach inkblots on the Internet

CHAPTER 3: Stress and Its Effects Revised to include a recent “Stress in America” survey from the Amer-

ican Psychological Association

New figure with recent national data on reported sources of stress

New data on physical health following Hurricane Katrina

New research on daily hassles and mortality in the elderly

New discussion of the stress mindset

viii To the Instructor

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New Recommended Reading profiling The Longevity Project

New information on the benefits of relatively modest amounts of exercise

New consideration of how walking is identified as a solid and beneficial form of exercise

New figure illustrates the declines in incidence, prevalence, and deaths from AIDS in the United States since the mid-1990s

New discussion of how to present medical instructions in order to increase adherence rates

New comparison of the term narcotic, which is seen as pejorative, with the term opioid, which is less recognized and understood by the public

New discussion of the context for legalization of marijuana for recreational and medicinal purposes in some locales, while highlighting benefits and liabilities of legalization

CHAPTER 6: The Self New discussion of the fit between positive selves and situation

contexts as a source of beneficial motivation

New Spotlight on Research on possible selves and late life depression

New review of social neuroscience work on social comparison theory, neural responses, and social status

New discussion of individualism and collectivism as being a part of social class differences within subcultures in the United States

Revised coverage of the correlates of self-esteem

New attention to the fact that a benefit of high self-esteem, such as task persistence following a negative evaluation, can come with interpersonal costs

New, extended discussion of the Dunning-Krueger effect and positive distortions in self-assessment

New examples of the better-than-average effect

New mention of how downward comparisons can be applied beneficially to oneself

New Recommended Reading profiling The Marshmallow Test

New studies revealing the benefits and risks of ingratiation as an impression management strategy

New figure illustrates the ways in which people use ingratiation and self-promotion in job interviews

New research indicating that self-promotion can be effective when an audience is cognitively busy during a presentation

New discussion of how people’s high or low self-monitoring can be predicted reasonably well by their posts on Facebook

New suggestions on how to cultivate a new strength in the Application on building self-esteem

CHAPTER 7: Social Thinking and Social Influence New discussion of an overlooked dimension of attributions:

intentional versus unintentional behaviors

New discussion of research that reduces the incidence of the confirmation bias

New discussion indicating that older adults’ health behaviors, which can be compromised by a crisis, are examples of health-related self-fulfilling prophecies

New and enhanced explanation of the costs of social categorization into groups

New explanation for the operation of the attractiveness stereotype

New fMRI study demonstrating that reliance on the fundamental attribution error is predictable based on activity in a particular part of the brain

New data on environmentally healthy neighborhoods and life satisfaction of residents

Expanded coverage of poverty as a source of stress

New research on antigay stigmas and health disparities

New coverage of the stress response and the ability to verbally characterize emotions

New data on positive emotional style and longevity

New discussion of stress and neurogenesis

New research on stress and memory improvement

New discussion of media exposure to trauma and PTSD symptoms

New discussion of the curvilinear relationship between lifetime adversity and mental health

New data on social support and inflammation

New discussion of superficial social interaction and well-being

New featured study on the role of hugs in social support

New cross-cultural data on optimism and health

CHAPTER 4: Coping Processes Revised coverage of aggression and catharsis

New discussion of comfort foods and stress-induced eating

New Spotlight on Research on stress-induced eating

New discussion of stress-induced shopping

New description of the subtypes of Internet addiction

New cross-cultural research on the prevalence of Internet addiction

Expanded discussion of the correlates of Internet addiction

New discussion of research on the importance of timing when humor is used as a coping mechanism

New figure outlining the essential components of emotional intelligence

New discussion of research on mediation and compassion

New figure on the effect of meditation on helping behavior

New discussion of self-forgiveness as an emotion-based coping strategy

Two new websites profiled in the Learn More Online feature

CHAPTER 5: Psychology and Physical Health New discussion of two causes of death that are not due to lifestyle

factors—Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Diseases, respectively—that are linked instead to longer lifespan

New figure and discussion concerning leading causes of death linked to four ethnic groups in the United States

New discussion of other negative emotions beyond anger and hostility that are linked to heart disease

New, broader discussion of how lack of social support is a predictor of heart disease

New discussion of how working through anger constructively can prevent coronary incidents

New discussion of the very weak connections between psychosocial factors and cancer onset, and new focus on psychological inter- ventions that improve cancer victims’ quality of life

Updated figure illustrating the great variety of stress-linked health problems

New discussion of novel psychosocial factors, such as loneliness and social standing, which can compromise immune functioning

New research on college students’ smoking habits, especially in relation to use of e-cigarettes and water pipes

New Spotlight on Research on whether smoking can be decreased via monetary incentives

To the Instructor ix

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New Spotlight on Research examining the influence of race and stereotypes on visual processing and behavior

New examples linking social dominance orientation to aggression in adolescence and efforts to maintain the status quo

New discussion of nationalism as a source of prejudice between groups

New Recommended Reading profiling Blindspot: Hidden Biases of Good People

New, broader discussion of social identity theory’s influence on self-esteem as a source of aggression

New discussion of how imagined contact with stigmatized outgroup members can promote prejudice reduction

New figure listing most to least trustworthy occupational groups

New figure listing tactics for resisting persuasive appeals

New field study demonstrates a positive form of compliance in response to a prosocial request

CHAPTER 8: Interpersonal Communication New Recommended Reading profiling Clash! How to Thrive in a

Multicultural World

New Spotlight on Research on communicating social relationships by photo-messaging

New discussion of the lack of empirical evidence that online sources of social support lead to improved health or reduced negative outcomes

New material on why people sometimes fail to maintain privacy in online venues

New discussion of how the presence of rapid saccadic eye movements can nonverbally indicate when someone is lying

New discussion of research indicating closer personal distance can increase tipping by customers

New research on how the recognition of facial expressions is influenced by their frequency of occurrence

New material on display rules for emotion, which are discussed in terms of whether they occur in or outside of work, as well as whether they are influenced by the larger culture

New discussion of emoji, accompanied by a new graphic showing many emoji

New data on accuracy in detecting lies under high-stakes conditions

New coverage reviewing how higher assessed nonverbal sensitivity enables individuals to make more accurate judgments of others’ personalities based on online profile information

New research concerning online self-disclosure as a predictor of honesty, intent, and whether status updates contain positive or negative content

New data linking laughter to self-disclosure

New discussion of how critical self-talk is associated with communi- cation apprehension and anxiety regarding public speaking

New material on classroom layout as a means to enhance communi- cation effectiveness as well as student comfort when presenting to others

New discussion of conversational rerouting and diversionary interrupting as forms of self-preoccupation associated with monopolizing conversations

New examples of aggressive, assertive, and submissive requests

CHAPTER 9: Friendship and Love New research on the complexity of the link between familiarity and

attraction

New coverage of the influence of red clothing on men’s perceptions of women’s attractiveness

New Spotlight on Research exploring limits to the link between the color red and attraction

New discussion of Montoya and Horton’s two-dimensional model of attraction

New discussion of the relevance of reciprocal self-disclosure in establishing relationships

New introduction to the importance of relationship maintenance activities

New coverage of Hall’s six friendship standards

New meta-analysis on gender differences in friendship expectations

New discussion of friendship maintenance strategies in response to conflict

New research on partner buffering to improve relational outcomes for individuals with insecure attachment

New discussion of the types of threats to relationships

New research on individual differences in adjustment after nonmarital breakups

New Recommended Reading profiling Alone Together

New discussion of advantages of online over face-to-face dating

New graphic on contemporary attitudes about online dating

New research finding a curvilinear relationship between the amount of communication in online dating and the quality of the initial face-to-face meeting

New coverage of the heritability of loneliness

New research on the link between loneliness and physical health

CHAPTER 10: Marriage and the Family New discussion of the Supreme Court ruling that legalized same-sex

marriage nationwide

Updated coverage of interracial couples

Updated data on voluntary childlessness, noting recent decline in rates

New discussion of postpartum depression as a “disease of modern civilization”

New research that challenges the view that nonparents are happier than parents

New Spotlight on Research comparing parents and nonparents in regard to positive emotions

New coverage of grandparents caregiving for children in later life

New research on division of labor among lesbian couples

New data on the financial practices of highly satisfied couples

New Recommended Reading profiling The Seven Principles for Making Marriage Work

New discussion of the “all-or-nothing” model of marriage

New section on same-sex marriages

New discussion of same-sex couples’ stepfamilies

New data on the relationship between cohabitation motivation and relationship satisfaction

Updated data on the prevalence of date rape

CHAPTER 11: Gender and Behavior New findings on the possible bases of gender disparities in spatial

abilities

New discussion of gender differences in academic achievement in addition to cognitive abilities

x To the Instructor

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New data concerning women’s participation in the labor force

New projections regarding the twenty occupations expected to grow the fastest between 2012 and 2022

New review of job quality dimensions where women lag behind men due to job segregation

New discussion of role overload as a source of workplace stress

New conclusion regarding how occupational stress can be reduced

New discussion of an experiment that reduced acceptance of myths regarding sexual harassment as well as the likelihood of engaging in harassment behaviors

New Spotlight on Research exploring how work-family conflict affects workers’ quantity and quality of sleep

New discussion of how résumé-writing workshops can enhance students’ skills at producing a good résumé

New information detailing questions an interviewee can ask during a job interview

New discussion of the importance of nonverbal cues in the job interview

CHAPTER 14: Psychological Disorders Expanded discussion of how the stigma of mental illness is a source

of stress and an impediment to treatment

New discussion of the exponential growth of the DSM system and its tendency to medicalize everyday problems

New Recommended Reading profiling Saving Normal

New discussion of how people with generalized anxiety disorder hope their worry will prepare them for the worst and its associa- tion with physical health problems

Agoraphobia covered as an independent disorder rather than a complication of panic disorder

Expanded description of agoraphobia, emphasizing the central role of fear that it will be difficult to escape threatening situations

Added discussion of whether people with OCD have insight into their irrationality and new information on the lack of gender differences in the prevalence of OCD

New research linking OCD to broad impairments in executive function

Added explanation of why multiple personality disorder was renamed dissociative identity disorder

Revised explanation of socio-cognitive views of dissociative identity disorder

New clarification that not all individuals with bipolar illness experience episodes of depression

Revised data on the prevalence and health consequences of depression

New data relating severity of depression and sense of hopelessness to suicidality

New research linking heightened reactivity in the amygdala to vulnerability to depression

New coverage of stormy social relations as a source of stress generation in the etiology of depression

New discussion of how stress becomes progressively less of a factor as people go through more recurrences of episodes of depression

New tabular overview of positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia

New research linking low IQ to vulnerability to schizophrenia

New MRI data on schizophrenia linking it to reduced volume in the hippocampus, thalamus, and amygdala

Updated coverage of brain overgrowth as etiological factor in autism spectrum disorder

Updated data from U.S. Department of Justice on female inmates (as an indicator of gender differences in aggression)

Introduced the concept of neurosexism

New discussion of the myth that hormones have a gender

New Spotlight on Research on the impact of gender-socialized play on career perceptions

New data on depictions of males and females in picture books

New discussion of how parents communicate gender messages while reading picture books

New discussion of the impact of the stereotype of the “underachiev- ing male” in schools

Updated data from Neilsen Research Group on TV viewing habits of children

New research on how TV and video games promote gender stereotypes

New data on gender role distress and sexual risk taking in males

New coverage of transgendered identities

New coverage of gender fluidity

New Application on gender in the workplace

New discussion of benevolent sexism

Expanded coverage of the glass ceiling

New discussion of Queen Bees in the workplace

New coverage of who is likely to be a target of sexual harassment

New discussion of the mental and physical effects of sexism and sexual harassment

New information on ways a workplace can reduce sexism and sexual harassment

CHAPTER 12: Development and Expression of Sexuality In discussion of sexual identity, added a definition for asexuals

New coverage of body image as a component of sexual identity

New recommended reading profiling Sexual Intelligence

New discussion of the effects of sexually explicit video games

New discussion of sexual fluidity in the coverage of sexual orientation

New discussion of how the belief that the vast majority of people are either straight or gay is a misleading oversimplification

New coverage of birth-order effects and sexual orientation

New data on attitudes toward homosexuality

New findings on the effects of others’ reactions to one’s coming out

New data on features of sexual fantasies

New data on the prevalence of hooking up among college students and outcomes of friends with benefits relationships

New discussion of sexting

New Spotlight on Research on the hormone oxytocin and its relationship to infidelity

Updated data on unintended and teen pregnancies

Updated data on HIV and HPV infections

CHAPTER 13: Careers and Work Two new suggestions added to the discussion of the kinds of

information one should pursue about specific occupations

New discussion of the value of job shadowing once potential professions are identified

New information on whether to pursue a job, a career, or a calling is discussed as an important consideration for planning one’s future work

To the Instructor xi

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New research on the effect of ethnic matching between therapist and client

New discussion of the need for culturally competent treatment of sexual minorities

New Spotlight on Research on whether Internet therapies are as effective as face-to-face therapies

CHAPTER 16: Positive Psychology New figure allows readers to assess their current level of flourishing

New discussion of research pointing to clinical implications and interventions for increasing thought speed and positive mood

New research demonstrates that physical activity not only generates positive emotions but also builds psychosocial resource reserves, whereas sedentary behavior creates negative emotions and reduces psychosocial reserves

New discussion of flow’s relationship to personality factors

New research linking mindfulness to the slowing of a progressively fatal disease

New figure enabling readers to assess the degree to which they savor their present moments

New Recommended Reading profiling Love 2.0: How Our Supreme Emotion Affects Everything We Feel, Think, Do, and Become

New Spotlight on Research on awe and prosocial behavior

New research on the noncognitive trait known as grit

New research concerning gratitude

New review of the intellectual divide between humanistic psychology and positive psychology

New material in the Application regarding gratitude journaling, a viable alternative to writing a gratitude letter

New suggestions for ways to spend money to promote happiness

New Spotlight on Research on the myth that vaccines are a cause of autism

New section on personality disorders, including a table describing all ten DSM-5 personality disorder diagnoses

New coverage of antisocial personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder

New discussion of the etiology of personality disorders

Streamlined coverage of eating disorders

New mention of peer influence and history of child abuse as etiological factors in eating disorders

Two new Learn More Online recommendations

CHAPTER 15: Psychotherapy New findings on the importance of empathy and unconditional

positive regard to therapeutic climate

New coverage of common factors as an explanation for the beneficial effects of therapy

New empirical effort to partition the variance in therapeutic outcomes to quantify the influence of common factors

Streamlined coverage of insight therapies

New data on prescription trends for antianxiety, antipsychotic, antidepressant, and mood-stabilizing drugs

New discussion of long-acting, injectable antipsychotic medications

Revised coverage of the side effects of SSRI antidepressants

New data on whether FDA warnings about antidepressants have impacted suicide rates

New data on antidepressant dosage levels in relation to suicide risk

New coverage of how the medicalization of psychological disorders has undermined the provision of insight therapy

New findings on relapse rates after ECT treatment

New research on ECT and autobiographical memory loss

xii To the Instructor

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xiii

coordinator; Susan Gall, for an excellent job of copyediting;

and Liz Harasymczuk, who created the new design. Oth-

ers who have made significant contributions to this project

include Stefanie Chase (content development), Michelle

Clark and Ruth Sakata Corley (project management), Andrew

Ginsberg (marketing), Adrienne McCrory (product assistant),

and Vernon Boes (art director).

In addition, Wayne Weiten would like to thank his wife,

Beth Traylor, who has been a steady source of emotional sup-

port despite the demands of her medical career, and his son, T. J.,

who adds a wealth of laughter to his dad’s life. Dana S. Dunn

thanks his children, Jacob and Hannah, for their usual support

during the writing and production process. Dana continues to

be grateful to Wayne and Elizabeth for their camaraderie as

authors and friends. He also appreciates the excellent efforts of

the Cengage team who supported his work during the prepara-

tion of this edition. Elizabeth Yost Hammer would like to thank

CAT+ (Olivia Crum, Janice Florent, Bart Everson, Tiera Coston,

Karen Nichols, and Jason Todd) for their patience and encour-

agement. She is especially grateful to Kimia Kaviani, Kyjeila

Latimer, Chinyere Okafor, and Emma Ricks for their outstand-

ing research assistance. Finally, she would like to thank Elliott

Hammer—her partner in work and play—for far too much to

list here.

Wayne Weiten

Dana S. Dunn

Elizabeth Yost Hammer

This book has been an enormous undertaking, and we want

to express our gratitude to the innumerable people who have

influenced its evolution. To begin with, we must cite the contri-

bution of our students who have taken the adjustment course. It is

trite to say that they have been a continuing inspiration—but

they have.

We also want to express our appreciation for the time and

effort invested by the authors of various ancillary books and ma-

terials: Vinny Hevern (Le Moyne College), Bill Addison (Eastern

Illinois University), Britain Scott (University of St. Thomas),

Susan Koger (Willamette University), Jeffry Ricker (Scottsdale

Community College), David Matsumoto (San Francisco State

University), Lenore Frigo (Shasta College), Jeffrey Armstrong

(Northampton Community College), and Jeremy Houska

(Centenary College) have contributed excellent work either to

this edition or to previous editions of the book. In spite of tight

schedules, they all did commendable work.

The quality of a textbook depends greatly on the quality

of the prepublication reviews by psychology professors around

the country. The reviewers listed on pages xiv–xv have contrib-

uted to the development of this book by providing constructive

reviews of various portions of the manuscript in this or earlier

editions. We are grateful to all of them.

We would also like to thank Tim Matray, who has served

as product manager for this edition. He has done a wonder-

ful job following in the footsteps of Claire Verduin, Eileen

Murphy, Edith Beard Brady, Michele Sordi, and Jon-David

Hague, to whom we remain indebted. We are also grateful

to Joan Keyes, who performed superbly as our production

Acknowledgments

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xiv

David Ackerman

Rhodes College

David W. Alfano

Community College of Rhode Island

Gregg Amore

DeSales University

Jeff Banks

Pepperdine University

David Baskind

Delta College

Marsha K. Beauchamp

Mt. San Antonio College

Robert Biswas-Diener

Portland State University (USA) /

Centre for Applied Positive Psychology

John R. Blakemore

Monterey Peninsula College

Barbara A. Boccaccio

Tunxis Community College

Paul Bowers

Grayson County College

Amara Brook

Santa Clara University

Tamara L. Brown

University of Kentucky

George Bryant

East Texas State University

James F. Calhoun

University of Georgia

Robert Cameron

Fairmont State College

David Campbell

Humboldt State University

Bernardo J. Carducci

Indiana University, Southeast

Richard Cavasina

California University of Pennsylvania

M. K. Clampit

Bentley College

Meg Clark

California State Polytechnic University–

Pomona

Stephen S. Coccia

Orange County Community

College

William C. Compton

Middle Tennessee State University

Dennis Coon

Santa Barbara City College

Katherine A. Couch

Eastern Oklahoma State College

Tori Crews

American River College

Salvatore Cullari

Lebenon Valley College

Kenneth S. Davidson

Wayne State University

Lugenia Dixon

Bainbridge College

Laura Duvall

Golden West College

Jean Egan

Asnuntuck Community College

Pamela Elizabeth

University of Rhode Island

Ron Evans

Washburn University

Belinda Evans-Ebio

Wayne County Community College

Richard Furhere

University of Wisconsin–Eau Claire

R. Kirkland Gable

California Lutheran University

Laura Gaudet

Chadron State College

Lee Gills

Georgia College

Chris Goode

Georgia State University

Lawrence Grebstein

University of Rhode Island

Bryan Gros

Louisiana State University

Kristi Hagen

Chippewa Valley Technical

College

David Hamilton

Canadore College

Kyle Max Hancock

Utah State University

Barbara Hansen Lemme

College of DuPage

Jerry Harazmus

Western Technical College

Christina Hawkey

Arizona Western College

Robert Helm

Oklahoma State University

Barbara Herman

Gainesville College

Jeanne L. Higbee

University of Minnesota

Robert Higgins

Central Missouri State University

Clara E. Hill

University of Maryland

Michael Hirt

Kent State University

Fred J. Hitti

Monroe Community College

William M. Hooper

Clayton College and State University

Joseph Horvat

Weber State University

Kathy Howard

Harding University

Teresa A. Hutchens

University of Tennessee–Knoxville

Howard Ingle

Salt Lake Community College

Brian Jensen

Columbia College

Jerry Jensen

Minneapolis Community & Technical

College

Walter Jones

College of DuPage

Wayne Joose

Calvin College

Bradley Karlin

Texas A&M University

Margaret Karolyi

University of Akron

Lambros Karris

Husson College

Liz Kiebel

Western Illinois University

Martha Kuehn

Central Lakes College

Susan Kupisch

Austin Peay State University

Robert Lawyer

Delgado Community College

Jimi Leopold

Tarleton State University

Harold List

Massachusetts Bay Community College

Corliss A. Littlefield

Morgan Community College

Louis A. Martone

Miami Dade Community College

Richard Maslow

San Joaquin Delta College

Reviewers

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Sherri McCarthy

Northern Arizona Community College

William T. McReynolds

University of Tampa

Fred Medway

University of South Carolina–Columbia

Fredrick Meeker

California State Polytechnic

University–Pomona

Mitchell Metzger

Pennsylvania State University–Shenago

Campus

John Moritsugu

Pacific Lutheran University

Jeanne O’Kon

Tallahassee Community College

Gary Oliver

College of DuPage

William Penrod

Middle Tennessee State University

Joseph Philbrick

California State Polytechnic University–

Pomona

Barbara M. Powell

Eastern Illinois University

James Prochaska

University of Rhode Island

Megan Benoit Ratcliff

University of Georgia

Bob Riesenberg

Whatcom Community College

Craig Rogers

Campbellsville University

Katherine Elaine Royal

Middle Tennessee State University

Joan Royce

Riverside Community College

Joan Rykiel

Ocean County College

John Sample

Slippery Rock University

Thomas K. Savill

Metropolitan State College of Denver

Patricia Sawyer

Middlesex Community College

Carol Schachat

De Anza College

John Schell

Kent State University

Norman R. Schultz

Clemson University

Dale Simmons

Oregon State University

Gail Simpson

Wayne County Community College

Sangeeta Singg

Angelo State University

Valerie Smead

Western Illinois University

Krishna Stilianos

Oakland Community College

Dolores K. Sutter

Tarrant County College–Northeast

Karl Swain

Community College of Southern

Nevada

Diane Teske

Penn State Harrisburg

Kenneth L. Thompson

Central Missouri State University

Joanne Viney

University of Illinois Urbana/Champaign

Davis L. Watson

University of Hawaii

Deborah S. Weber

University of Akron

Monica Whitehead

University of Georgia

Clair Wiederholt

Madison Area Technical College

J. Oscar Williams

Diablo Valley College

Corinice Wilson

Oklahoma State University Institute

of Technology

David Wimer

Pennsylvania State University,

University Park

Raymond Wolf

Moraine Park Technical College

Raymond Wolfe

State University of New York at Geneseo

Michael Wolff

Southwestern Oklahoma State

University

Madeline E. Wright

Houston Community College

Norbet Yager

Henry Ford Community College

Reviewers xv

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xvii xvii

1 Adjusting to Modern Life 1 APPLICATION: Improving Academic Performance 21

2 Theories of Personality 28 APPLICATION: Assessing Your Personality 56

3 Stress and Its Effects 62 APPLICATION: Reducing Stress through Self-Control 87

4 Coping Processes 94 APPLICATION: Using Time More Effectively 115

5 Psychology and Physical Health 122 APPLICATION: Understanding the Effects of Drugs 150

6 The Self 158 APPLICATION: Building Self-Esteem 184

7 Social Thinking and Social Influence 188 APPLICATION: Seeing through Compliance Tactics 214

8 Interpersonal Communication 220 APPLICATION: Developing an Assertive Communication Style 244

9 Friendship and Love 250 APPLICATION: Overcoming Loneliness 271

10 Marriage and the Family 278 APPLICATION: Understanding Intimate Partner Violence 301

11 Gender and Behavior 306 APPLICATION: Gender in the Workplace 329

12 Development and Expression of Sexuality 334 APPLICATION: Enhancing Sexual Relationships 360

13 Careers and Work 366 APPLICATION: Getting Ahead in the Job Game 391

14 Psychological Disorders 398 APPLICATION: Understanding Eating Disorders 423

15 Psychotherapy 428 APPLICATION: Looking For a Therapist 451

16 Positive Psychology 456 APPLICATION: Boosting Your Own Happiness 478

B R I E F C O N T E N T S

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xviii

C H A P T E R 1 Adjusting to Modern Life 1

C O N T E N T S

1.1 The Paradox of Progress 1

1.2 The Search for Direction 3 Self-Help Books

The Approach of This Textbook

1.3 The Psychology of Adjustment 8 What Is Psychology?

What Is Adjustment?

1.4 The Scientific Approach to Behavior 10 Experimental Research: Looking for Causes

Correlational Research: Looking for Links

SPOTLIGHT ON RESEARCH Does Plate Size Influence Food Consumption? 13

1.5 The Roots of Happiness: An Empirical Analysis 16 What Isn’t Very Important?

What Is Somewhat Important?

What Is Very Important?

Conclusions

RECOMMENDED READING Stumbling on Happiness by Daniel Gilbert 20

1.6 APPLICATION: Improving Academic Performance 21 Developing Sound Study Habits

Improving Your Reading

Getting More out of Lectures

Applying Memory Principles

Review 26

Practice Test 27 Se rg

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ac hl

ak ov

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tt er

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m

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2.1 The Nature of Personality 29 What Is Personality?

What Are Personality Traits?

The Five-Factor Model of Personality

2.2 Psychodynamic Perspectives 31 Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory

Jung’s Analytical Psychology

Adler’s Individual Psychology

Evaluating Psychodynamic Perspectives

2.3 Behavioral Perspectives 38 Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning

Skinner’s Operant Conditioning

Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory

Evaluating Behavioral Perspectives

2.4 Humanistic Perspectives 44 Rogers’s Person-Centered Theory

Maslow’s Theory of Self-Actualization

Evaluating Humanistic Perspectives

2.5 Biological Perspectives 48 Eysenck’s Theory

Recent Research in Behavioral Genetics

The Evolutionary Approach to Personality

RECOMMENDED READING Making Sense of People: Decoding the

Mysteries of Personality by Samuel Barondes 50

Evaluating Biological Perspectives

2.6 Contemporary Empirical Approaches to Personality 50 Renewed Interest in Narcissism

Terror Management Theory

2.7 Culture and Personality 53

SPOTLIGHT ON RESEARCH Individualism, Collectivism, and Self-Insight 55

2.8 APPLICATION: Assessing Your Personality 56 Key Concepts in Psychological Testing

Self-Report Inventories

Projective Tests

Review 60

Practice Test 61

C H A P T E R 2 Theories of Personality 28

Pe te

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ad e/

Th e

Im ag

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an k/

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ag es

Contents xix

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C H A P T E R 3 Stress and Its Effects 62

3.1 The Nature of Stress 63 Stress Is an Everyday Event

Stress Lies in the Eye of the Beholder

Stress May Be Embedded in the Environment

Stress Is Influenced by Culture

3.2 Major Sources of Stress 67 Frustration

Internal Conflict

Change

Pressure

3.3 Responding to Stress 70 Emotional Responses

Physiological Responses

RECOMMENDED READING Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers: The Acclaimed Guide to Stress,

Stress-Related Diseases, and Coping by Robert M. Sapolsky 78

Behavioral Responses

3.4 The Potential Effects of Stress 78 Impaired Task Performance

Disruption of Cognitive Functioning

Burnout

Psychological Problems and Disorders

Physical Illness

Positive Effects

3.5 Factors Influencing Stress Tolerance 83 Social Support

SPOTLIGHT ON RESEARCH The Role

of Hugs in Social Support 85

Hardiness

Optimism

3.6 APPLICATION: Reducing Stress through Self-Control 87 Specifying Your Target Behavior

Gathering Baseline Data

Designing Your Program

Executing and Evaluating Your

Program

Ending Your Program

Review 92

Practice Test 93 wa ve

br ea

km ed

ia /S

hu tt

er st

oc k.

co m

xx Contents

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4.1 The Concept of Coping 95

4.2 Common Coping Patterns of Limited Value 96 Giving Up

Acting Aggressively

Indulging Yourself

SPOTLIGHT ON RESEARCH Stress-Induced Eating 99

Blaming Yourself

Using Defensive Coping

4.3 The Nature of Constructive Coping 103

4.4 Appraisal-Focused Constructive Coping 104 Ellis’s Rational Thinking

Humor as a Stress Reducer

Positive Reinterpretation

4.5 Problem-Focused Constructive Coping 107 Using Systematic Problem Solving

Seeking Help

Improving Time Management

4.6 Emotion-Focused Constructive Coping 109 Enhancing Emotional Intelligence

Expressing Emotions

RECOMMENDED READING Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More than IQ

by Daniel Goleman 111

Managing Hostility and Forgiving Others

Exercising

Using Meditation and Relaxation

Spirituality

4.7 APPLICATION: Using Time More Effectively 115 The Causes of Wasted Time

The Problem of Procrastination

Time-Management Techniques

Review 120

Practice Test 121

C H A P T E R 4 Coping Processes 94

ZI N

Q S

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Contents xxi

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C H A P T E R 5 Psychology and Physical Health 122

5.1 Stress, Personality, and Illness 125 Personality, Emotions, and Heart Disease

Stress and Cancer

Stress and Other Diseases

Stress and Immune Functioning

Conclusions

5.2 Habits, Lifestyles, and Health 130 Smoking

SPOTLIGHT ON RESEARCH Quitting Smoking: Do Monetary Incentives Work? 133

Drinking

Overeating

Poor Nutrition

RECOMMENDED READING The Longevity Project: Surprising Discoveries for Health

and Long Life from the Landmark Eight-Decade Study by Howard S. Friedman

and Leslie R. Martin 139

Lack of Exercise

Behavior and AIDS

5.3 Reactions to Illness 147 The Decision to Seek Treatment

The Sick Role

Communicating with Health Providers

Adherence to Medical Advice

5.4 APPLICATION: Understanding the Effects of Drugs 150 Drug-Related Concepts

Narcotics

Sedatives

Stimulants

Hallucinogens

Marijuana

Ecstasy (MDMA)

Review 156

Practice Test 157

Jo e

R ae

dl e/

G et

ty Im

ag es

N ew

s/ G

et ty

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es

xxii Contents

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6.1 Self-Concept 159 The Nature of the Self-Concept

SPOTLIGHT ON RESEARCH Possible Selves and Late Life Depression 161

Self-Discrepancies

Factors Shaping the Self-Concept

6.2 Self-Esteem 167 The Importance of Self-Esteem

The Development of Self-Esteem

Ethnicity, Gender, and Self-Esteem

6.3 Basic Principles of Self-Perception 172 Cognitive Processes

Self-Attributions

Explanatory Style

Motives Guiding Self-Understanding

Methods of Self-Enhancement

RECOMMENDED READING The Marshmallow Test:

Mastering Self-Control by Walter Mischel 178

6.4 Self-Regulation 179 Self-Efficacy

Self-Defeating Behavior

6.5 Self-Presentation 181 Impression Management

Self-Monitoring

6.6 APPLICATION: Building Self-Esteem 184

Review 186

Practice Test 187

C H A P T E R 6 The Self 158

Pr es

sm as

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Contents xxiii

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7.1 Forming Impressions of Others 189 Key Sources of Information

Snap Judgments versus Systematic Judgments

Attributions

Perceiver Expectations

Cognitive Distortions

Key Themes in Person Perception

7.2 The Problem of Prejudice 198

SPOTLIGHT ON RESEARCH When Seeing Is Stereotypically Believeing—and Reacting 199

Old-Fashioned versus Modern Discrimination

Causes of Prejudice

Reducing Prejudice

RECOMMENDED READING Blindspot: Hidden Biases of Good People by Mahzarin R. Banaji

and Anthony G. Greenwald 204

7.3 The Power of Persuasion 205 Elements of the Persuasion Process

The Whys of Persuasion

7.4 The Power of Social Pressure 209 Conformity and Compliance Pressures

Pressure from Authority Figures

7.5 APPLICATION: Seeing through Compliance Tactics 214 The Consistency Principle

The Reciprocity Principle

The Scarcity Principle

Review 218

Practice Test 219

C H A P T E R 7 Social Thinking and Social Influence 188

M as

te rfi

le

xxiv Contents

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8.1 The Process of Interpersonal Communication 221 Components and Features of the Communication Process

RECOMMENDED READING Clash!: How to Thrive in a Multicultural World by Hazel Rose

Markus and Alana Connor 222

Technology and Interpersonal Communication

SPOTLIGHT ON RESEARCH Communicating Social Relationships

by Photo-Messaging 224

Social Networking Sites: Privacy and Security Issues

Communication and Adjustment

8.2 Nonverbal Communication 227 General Principles

Elements of Nonverbal Communication

Detecting Deception

The Significance of Nonverbal Communication

8.3 Toward More Effective Communication 236 Conversational Skills

Self-Disclosure

Effective Listening

8.4 Communication Problems 240 Communication Apprehension

Barriers to Effective Communication

8.5 Interpersonal Conflict 242 Beliefs about Conflict

Styles of Managing Conflict

Dealing Constructively with Conflict

8.6 APPLICATION: Developing an Assertive Communication Style 244 The Nature of Assertiveness

Steps in Assertiveness Training

Review 248

Practice Test 249

C H A P T E R 8 Interpersonal Communication 220

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9.1 Relationship Development 251 Initial Encounters

SPOTLIGHT ON RESEARCH Is the Woman in Red Always Attractive? 254

Getting Acquainted

Established Relationships

9.2 Friendship 259 What Makes a Good Friend?

Gender and Sexual Orientation

Conflict in Friendships

9.3 Romantic Love 261 Gender and Sexual Orientation

Theories of Love

The Course of Romantic Love

9.4 The Internet and Close Relationships 268

RECOMMENDED READING Alone Together: Why We Expect More from

Technology and Less from Each Other by Sherry Turkle 269

Developing Close Relationships Online

Building Online Intimacy

Moving beyond Online Relationships

9.5 APPLICATION: Overcoming Loneliness 271 The Nature and Prevalence of Loneliness

The Roots of Loneliness

Correlates of Loneliness

Conquering Loneliness

Review 276

Practice Test 277

C H A P T E R 9 Friendship and Love 250

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10.1 Challenges to the Traditional Model of Marriage 279

10.2 Deciding to Marry 281 Cultural Influences on Marriage

Selecting a Mate

Predictors of Marital Success

10.3 Marital Adjustment across the Family Life Cycle 285 Between Families: The Unattached Young Adult

Joining Together: The Newly Married Couple

The Family with Young Children

SPOTLIGHT ON RESEARCH Finding the Bundles of Joy in Parenting 288

The Family with Adolescent Children

Launching Children into the Adult World

The Family in Later Life

10.4 Vulnerable Areas in Marital Adjustment 290 Gaps in Role Expectations

Work and Career Issues

Financial Difficulties

Inadequate Communication

RECOMMENDED READING The Seven Principles

for Making Marriage Work by John M.

Gottman 294

10.5 Divorce and Its Aftermath 294 Divorce Rates

Deciding on a Divorce

Adjusting to Divorce

Effects of Divorce on Children

Remarriage and Stepfamilies

10.6 Same-Sex Marriage 298 Relationship Stability and Adjustment

Same-Sex Families

10.7 Alternatives to Marriage 299 Cohabitation

Remaining Single

10.8 APPLICATION: Understanding Intimate Partner Violence 301 Partner Abuse

Date Rape

Review 304

Practice Test 305

C H A P T E R 10 Marriage and the Family 278

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C H A P T E R 11 Gender and Behavior 306

11.1 Gender Stereotypes 307

11.2 Gender Similarities and Differences 309 Cognitive Abilities

Personality Traits and Social Behavior

Psychological Disorders

RECOMMENDED READING The Myth of Mars and Venus: Do Men and Women Really

Speak Different Languages? by Deborah Cameron 313

Putting Gender Differences in Perspective

11.3 Biological Origins of Gender Differences 314 Evolutionary Explanations

Brain Organization

Hormonal Influences

11.4 Environmental Origins of Gender Differences 317 Processes in Gender-Role Socialization

Sources of Gender-Role Socialization

SPOTLIGHT ON RESEARCH Can Barbie Be a Firefighter? 319

11.5 Gender-Role Expectations 322 Role Expectations for Males

Problems with the Male Role

Role Expectations for Females

Problems with the Female Role

11.6 Gender in the Past and in the Future 326 Why Are Gender Roles Changing?

Alternatives to Traditional Gender Roles

11.7 APPLICATION: Gender in the Workplace 329 Sexism

Sexual Harassment

Effects of Sexism and Sexual Harassment

Reducing Sexism and Sexual Harassment

Review 332

Practice Test 333

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12.1 Becoming a Sexual Person 335 Key Aspects of Sexual Identity

RECOMMENDED READING Sexual Intelligence: What We Really Want from Sex and

How to Get It by Marty Klein 336

Physiological Influences

Psychosocial Influences

Gender Differences in Sexual Socialization

12.2 Sexual Orientation 341 Models of Sexual Orientation

Origins of Sexual Orientation

Attitudes toward Homosexuality

Disclosing One’s Sexual Orientation

Adjustment

12.3 The Human Sexual Response 344 The Sexual Response Cycle

Gender Differences in Patterns of Orgasm

12.4 Sexual Expression 346 Fantasy

Kissing

Masturbation

Oral Sex

Anal Sex

Intercourse

Communicating about Sex

12.5 Patterns of Sexual Behavior 350 Sex outside of Committed Relationships

Sex in Committed Relationships

Infidelity in Committed Relationships

SPOTLIGHT ON RESEARCH Oxytocin Promotes Fidelity 353

12.6 Practical Issues in Sexual Activity 354 Contraception

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

12.7 APPLICATION: Enhancing Sexual Relationships 360 General Suggestions

Understanding Sexual Dysfunction

Coping with Specific Problems

Review 364

Practice Test 365

C H A P T E R 12 Development and Expression of Sexuality 334

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C H A P T E R 13 Careers and Work 366

13.1 Choosing a Career 367 Examining Personal Characteristics and Family Influences

Researching Job Characteristics

Using Psychological Tests for Career Decisions

Taking Important Considerations into Account

13.2 Models of Career Choice and Development 372 Holland’s Person-Environment Fit Model

Super’s Developmental Model

Women’s Career Development

13.3 The Changing World of Work 376 Contemporary Workplace Trends

Education and Earnings

Workforce Diversity

13.4 Coping with Occupational Hazards 382 Job Stress

Sexual Harassment

Unemployment

13.5 Balancing Work and Other Spheres of Life 387 Workaholism

Work and Family Roles

SPOTLIGHT ON RESEARCH Work-Family Conflict’s Connection to a Good Night’s Sleep

(Or the Lack Thereof) 389

Leisure and Recreation

13.6 APPLICATION: Getting Ahead in the Job Game 391

RECOMMENDED READING What Color Is Your Parachute? A Practical Manual for

Job-Hunters and Career-Changers by Richard Nelson Bolles 392

Putting Together a Résumé

Finding Companies You Want to Work For

Landing an Interview

Polishing Your Interview Technique

Review 396

Practice Test 397

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C H A P T E R 14 Psychological Disorders 398

14.1 General Concepts 399 The Medical Model Applied to Abnormal Behavior

Criteria of Abnormal Behavior

Psychodiagnosis: The Classification of Disorders

RECOMMENDED READING Saving Normal by Allen Frances 402

14.2 Anxiety Disorders and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder 402 Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Specific Phobia

Panic Disorder

Agoraphobia

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Etiology of Anxiety-Related Disturbances

14.3 Dissociative Disorders 406 Description

Etiology of Dissociative Disorders

14.4 Depressive and Bipolar Disorders 408 Major Depressive Disorder

Bipolar Disorder

Mood Dysfunction and Suicide

Etiology of Depressive and Bipolar Disorders

14.5 Schizophrenic Disorders 414 Symptoms

Etiology of Schizophrenia

14.6 Autism Spectrum Disorder 419 Symptoms

Etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder

SPOTLIGHT ON RESEARCH Autism and

Vaccinations 420

14.7 Personality Disorders 421 Antisocial, Borderline, and Narcissistic Personality Disorders

Etiology of Personality Disorders

14.8 APPLICATION: Understanding Eating Disorders 423 Types of Eating Disorders

Prevalence of Eating Disorders

Etiology of Eating Disorders

Review 426

Practice Test 427 A

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C H A P T E R 15 Psychotherapy 428

15.1 Elements of the Treatment Process 429 Treatments: How Many Types Are There?

Clients: Who Seeks Therapy?

Therapists: Who Provides Professional Treatment?

15.2 Insight Therapies 432 Psychoanalysis

Client-Centered Therapy

Group Therapy

Couples and Family Therapy

How Effective Are Insight Therapies?

How Do Insight Therapies Work?

15.3 Behavior Therapies 439 Systematic Desensitization

Social Skills Training

Cognitive-Behavioral Treatments

RECOMMENDED READING Crazy: A Father’s Search

through America’s Mental Health Madness by Pete

Earley 442

How Effective Are Behavior Therapies?

15.4 Biomedical Therapies 442 Drug Therapy

Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)

15.5 Current Trends and Issues in Treatment 448 Blending Approaches to Treatment

Increasing Multicultural Sensitivity in Treatment

Using Technology to Expand the Delivery of Clinical Services

SPOTLIGHT ON RESEARCH Testing the Efficacy of Internet Therapy 450

15.6 APPLICATION: Looking For a Therapist 451 Where Do You Find Therapeutic Services?

Is the Therapist’s Profession or Sex Important?

Is Therapy Always Expensive?