PHL 320 Week 1 Knowledge Check

1.In the context of arguments in the critical thinking process, what is the term used to refer to a reason provided for accepting a claim?•A.Premise•B.Conclusion•C.Objective•D.Belief 2.Identify a true statement about the effects of critical thinking on the decision-making process.•A.Critical thinking prevents a person from making prudent decisions.•B.Critical thinking promotes decisions based on logically accurate conclusions.•C.Critical thinking results in reactions based on ill-informed decisions.•D.Critical thinking involves forming conclusions through intuition rather than reason. 3.Which among the following is a subjective claim?•A.There is no life on Jupiter.•B.Russia is the largest country.•C.Botanically, tomato is a vegetable.•D.Bacon is a great breakfast dish. 4.When is a deductive argument valid?•A.When it is impossible for the premise to be true and the conclusion untrue•B.When the premise is accurate, but the conclusion is inaccurate•C.When the premise does not support the conclusion•D.When the conclusion denies the truth of the premise by stating the opposite 5.In the context of “inference to the best explanation” (IBE) reasoning, identify an accurate statement about the best explanation of a phenomenon.•A.The best explanation is one that fails to sufficiently account for the occurrence of a particular event.•B.The best explanation is one that leads to vague predictions.•C.The best explanation is one that often clashes with other firmly established explanations. •D.The best explanation is one that involves the least number of needless assumptions.6.Jacob and Stefan, twin brothers, are spending Thanksgiving with their grandmother, Esmeralda. Esmeralda bakes pumpkin tarts for dinner. Just before serving dinner, she notices that half of the tarts are missing. Since Stefan dislikes eating pumpkin, Esmeralda assumes that Jacob is the one who has taken the tarts. Based on the information provided in this scenario, from which of the following has Esmeralda most likely drawn her conclusion?•A.An inductive supporting argument•B.A deductive demonstration•C.An untrue premise•D.A theoretical claim7.How do cognitive biases affect a person’s thought process?•A.They help remove the confusion in a person’s mind.•B.They enhance a person’s ability to assess and evaluate information correctly.•C.They distort a person’s perception of reality.•D.They enhance a person’s ability to reason objectively. 8.Which of the following is the cognitive bias that makes a person evaluate a reasoning based on his or her confidence in the plausibility of its conclusion?•A.Better-than-average illusion•B.In-group bias•C.Belief bias•D.Bandwagon effect9.Kiera never believed that wearing designer clothes was important for her self-image. However, after working at a high-end fashion boutique for two months now, she has started thinking and dressing like her colleagues, who believe that it is important to wear only designer labels as such clothing projects an image of sophistication. Which cognitive bias has been exemplified in this scenario?•A.Bandwagon effect•B.Availability bias•C.Overconfidence effect•D.Belief bias