Submit a one or two page outline of your research paper. Ensure you include detail for each section that shows what direction will be taken. Include a minimum of five references in proper APA format you will use for your final submission.

Sample beginning outline:

  • Introduction
    • Organizational crisis response will yield both effective and ineffective actions as some tasks will be managed well and others will fail (Pearson & Clair, 1998).
    • It is important to compare and contrast leadership response to major crises to further the understanding of crisis leadership. Mayor Giuliani and Mayor Nagin both experienced significant organizational crises following major tragedies and their response to organizational crisis requires further exploration through a speech analysis of emergent themes.
  • Background Information
    • Mayor Giuliani
      • Giuliani worked as an Associate Attorney General and eventually US Attorney for Southern District of New York. During his tenure as Attorney General, Giuliani focused on drug dealers and organized crime, where he had a record 4,152 convictions with only 25 reversals (Giuliani, 2006).
      • As mayor from 1993-2001, Giuliani saw a 57 % decline in felony crimes and a 68% decline in the murder rate. These, according to Mott (2001) made New York City a safer place to live and increased tourism.
    • September 11, 2001
      • The attack on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, is the single greatest tragedy in United States history and is often cited as the reason for changing U.S. policy toward terrorism (Lincoln, 2005).
      • New York City’s response to the plane crashes was immediate (within five seconds of the first crash), with “principle response from the Fire Department of New York, the New York Police Department, the Port Authority Police Department (PAPD) and the Mayor’s Office of Emergency Management (OEM)” (Kean & Hamilton, 2004, p. 281).
    • Mayor Nagin
      • VP of Cox Communication before becoming mayor (Meister, 2003)
      • Moderate success leading up to Hurricane Katrine (Meister, 2003)
    • Hurricane Katrina
      • Most powerful storm in US history (Vanden Brook & Copeland, 2005)
      • Looting was a major problem (Barringer and Longman, 2005)
    • Literature Review
      • Definition of a crisis
        • Crisis is hard to control (Boin & Hart, 2003)
        • Event that causes extreme distress (Mitroff, 2005)
      • Leaders in a time of crisis
        • Characteristics include think critically, preparation, training, etc. (Mullins, 2003)
        • The public has expectations of the leader (Boin & Hart, 2003)
      • Etc…..


Boin A. & Hart, P. (2003). Public leadership in times of crisis: Mission impossible?

     Public Administration Review, 63(5), p. 544.

Giuliani, R. (2006). Biography of Mayor Rudy Giuliani. Retrieved

     from (Links to an external site.).

Lincoln, B.G. (2005). Leadership in the aftermath of September, 11th. Dissertation

     Abstracts International, 64(02), 570. (UMI No. 3184348).

Mullins, L. (2003). The impact of September 11, 2001 on health

     care leadership and environment of care outcome scores of

     U.S. hospitals as measured by the joint commission on

     accreditation of health care organizations. Dissertation Abstracts, (UMI: 3089102).

Vanden Brook, T. & Copeland, L. (2005, August 29). Hurricane Katrina:

     160-mph monster. USA Today.

 “For Professor George Brian Only