Organization – V

Generally speaking, social media has three primary uses for organizations: recruiting talent, knowledge sharing and reinforcing the brand.  How is social media used in achieving these objectives at your organization? Table 9.5 in your text describes elements of effective social media policies. How does your organization prevent employees from abusing social media on the job?  

 Organizational Behavior: A Practical, Problem-Solving Approach 2e (loose-leaf) (Kinicki/Fugate) McGraw-Hill (2017) ISBN: 9781259732645

Part 2: Groups

© 2016 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

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Chapter 9 | Slide 2

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COMMUNICATION IN THE DIGITAL AGE

How Can I Become a More Effective Communicator?

9.1 Basic Dimensions of the Communication Process

9.2 Communication Competence

9.3 Gender, Generations, and Communication

9.4 Social Media and OB

9.5 Communication Skills to Boost Your Effectiveness

Basic Dimensions of the Communication Process

Why is Communication Important?

Every managerial function and activity involves some form of direct or indirect communication

Every person’s communication skills affect both personal and organizational effectiveness

Chapter 9 | Slide 3

Challenges lie in effectively communicating in today’s 24/7 digitally connected world. It is important to understand the underlying communication process and the dynamics of communicating as technology continues to evolve.

The study of communication is fundamentally important because every managerial function and activity involves some form of direct or indirect communication.

This explains why communication is a critical “process” at all three levels in the Integrative Framework. Whether planning and organizing or directing and leading, managers find themselves communicating with and through others. This implies that everyone’s communication skills affect both personal and organizational effectiveness.

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Basic Dimensions of the Communication Process

What is Communication?

The exchange of information between a sender and a receiver, and the inference (perception) of meaning between the individuals involved

A process that takes place between two or more people

Chapter 9 | Slide 4

Communication is defined as “the exchange of information between a sender and a receiver, and the inference (perception) of meaning between the individuals involved.”

This definition highlights that communication is a process that takes place between two or more people.

It’s a very important process for managers because they tend to spend the majority of their time sending, receiving, and interpreting messages.

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Basic Dimensions of the Communication Process

The Communication Process

Chapter 9 | Slide 5

Communication is fraught with miscommunication. Researchers recognize this and have begun to examine communication as a form of social information processing which receivers interpret messages by cognitively processing information.

This view led to development of a perceptual model of communication that depicts communication as a process in which receivers create meaning in their own minds.

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Basic Dimensions of the Communication Process

The Communication Process

Sender, message, and receiver

Encoding

Translating thoughts into code or language others can understand

Forms the foundation of the message

Chapter 9 | Slide 6

Sender, Message, and Receiver. The sender is the person wanting to communicate information—the message. The receiver is the person, group, or organization for whom the message is intended.

Encoding. Communication begins when a sender encodes an idea or thought. Encoding entails translating thoughts into a code or language that can be understood by others. This forms the foundation of the message.

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Basic Dimensions of the Communication Process

The Communication Process

Selecting a medium

Chapter 9 | Slide 7

Choice of medium depends on

The nature of the message

Intended purpose

Type of audience

Proximity to audience

Time horizon

Personal preferences

Managers can communicate through a variety of media. Potential media include face-to-face conversations and meetings, telephone calls, charts and graphs, and the many digital forms (e.g., e-mail, texting, voice mail, videoconferencing, Twitter, Facebook, Blackboard, etc.). Choosing the appropriate media depends on many factors, including the nature of the message, its intended purpose, the type of audience, proximity to the audience, time horizon for disseminating the message, and personal preferences.

All media have advantages and disadvantages.

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Face-to-Face Conversations

Meetings

Telephone Calls

Charts and Graphs

Digital Forms of Communication

Basic Dimensions of the Communication Process

The Communication Process

Decoding and creating meaning

When receivers receive a message

Process of interpreting and making sense of a message

Can be influenced by cultural norms and values

Feedback

The receiver expresses a reaction to the sender’s message

Noise

Anything that interferes with the transmission and understanding of a message

Chapter 9 | Slide 8

Decoding occurs when receivers receive a message. It is the process of interpreting and making sense of a message.

The perceptual model of communication is based on the belief that a receiver creates the meaning of a message in his or her mind. This means that the same message can be interpreted differently by different people.

Noise represents anything that interferes with the transmission and understanding of a message. It affects all linkages of the communication process. Noise includes factors such as the all-too-common unreliable or slow networks. But there are many other sources of noise: speech impairment, illegible handwriting, inaccurate statistics, poor hearing and eyesight, environmental noises, people talking, and physical distance between sender and receiver. Nonverbal communication also is a source of noise, as are cross-cultural differences between senders and receivers.

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Basic Dimensions of the Communication Process

Media Richness

The capacity of a given communication medium to convey information and promote understanding

Chapter 9 | Slide 9

Media Richness involves the capacity of a given communication medium to convey information and promote understanding.

Alternative media can vary from rich to lean. The richer a medium, the better it is at conveying information.

Four Factors of Media Richness

1. Feedback (ranging from fast to very slow).

2. Channel (ranging from the combined visual and audio characteristics of a videoconference to the limited visual aspects of a computer report).

3. Type of communication (ranging from personal to impersonal).

4. Language source (ranging from the natural body language and speech involved in a face-to-face conversation to the numbers contained in a financial statement).

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Factors of Media Richness

Feedback

Channel

Type

Language Source

Test Your OB Knowledge

George is the CEO of Big Sky Travel Corporation. He needs to convey bad news to his employees. The best medium to communicate the news is most likely:

e-mail

Text

Face-to-face

Memo

Telephone

Chapter 9 | Slide ‹#›

The answer is (C).

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Communication Competence

What is Communication Competence?

Chapter 9 | Slide 11

Performance-based index of an individual’s abilities to effectively use communication behaviors in a given context

Although there is no universally accepted definition of communication competence, it is a performance-based index of an individual’s abilities to effectively use communication behaviors in a given context.

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Communication Competence

What is Nonverbal Communication?

Any message sent or received independent of the written or spoken word

Chapter 9 | Slide 12

Nonverbal communication is any message sent or received independent of the written or spoken word.

Includes such factors as use of time and space, distance between persons when conversing, use of color, dress, walking behavior, standing, positioning, seating arrangement, office locations and furnishings.

Experts estimate that 65 to 95 percent of every conversation is interpreted through nonverbal communication.

It thus is important to ensure that your nonverbal signals are consistent with your intended verbal messages.

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Communication Competence

Key Sources of Nonverbal Messages

Body movements and gestures

Provide additional nonverbal information that can either enhance or detract from the communication process

Chapter 9 | Slide 13

Body movements (e.g., leaning forward or backward) and gestures (e.g., pointing) provide additional nonverbal information that can either enhance or detract from the communication process.

Although it is both easy and fun to interpret body movements and gestures, it is important to remember that body-language analysis is subjective, easily misinterpreted, and highly dependent on the context and cross-cultural differences.

Thus, managers need to be careful when trying to interpret body movements. Inaccurate interpretations can create additional “noise” in the communication process.

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Communication Competence

Other Key Sources of Nonverbal Messages

Chapter 9 | Slide 14

Touching is another powerful nonverbal cue. People tend to touch those they like. Touching conveys an impression of warmth and caring and can be used to create a personal bond between people. Be careful about touching people from diverse cultures, however, as norms for touching vary significantly around the world.

Facial expressions convey a wealth of information. Smiling, for instance, typically represents warmth, happiness, or friendship, whereas frowning conveys dissatisfaction or anger.

Eye contact is a strong nonverbal cue that varies across cultures.

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Touch

Facial Expressions

Eye Contact

Communication Competence

Active Listening

The process of actively decoding and interpreting verbal messages

Requires cognitive attention and information processing unlike hearing

Chapter 9 | Slide 15

Listening involves much more than hearing a message. Hearing is merely the physical component of listening.

Listening is the process of actively decoding and interpreting verbal messages.

Listening requires cognitive attention and information processing; hearing does not. There is general consensus that listening is a cornerstone skill of communication competence.

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Communication Competence

Listening Styles

Chapter 9 | Slide 16

Active—I’m fully invested. Active listeners are “all in.” That is, they are motivated to listen and give full attention when others are talking. They focus on what is being communicated and expend energy participating in the discussion. They also use body language such as leaning in or direct eye contact to convey interest.

Involved—I’m partially invested. Involved listeners devote some, but not all of their attention and energy to listening. They reflect on what is being said and partially participate in the discussion. Their use of nonverbal cues also tends to be inconsistent or intermittent. Involved listeners can show nonverbal signs of interest and noninterest in the same conversation.

Passive—It’s not my responsibility to listen. Passive listeners are not equal partners in a speaking-listening exchange. They assume that the speaker is responsible for the quality of the interaction and their role is to passively take in information. Passive listeners will display attentiveness, but it can be faked at times. Overall, they don’t expend much motivation or energy into receiving and decoding messages.

Detached—I’m uninterested. Detached listeners tend to withdraw from the interaction. They appear inattentive, bored, distracted, and uninterested. They may start using mobile devices during the speaking-listening exchange. Body language will reflect lack of interest, such as slumping and avoiding direct eye contact.

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Active – I’m Fully Invested

Involved – I’m Partially Invested

Passive – It’s Not My Responsibility to Listen

Detached – I’m Uninterested

Communication Competence

Tips for Effective Listening

Chapter 9 | Slide 17

Effective listening is a learned skill that requires effort and motivation. It basically comes down to paying attention to the content of the message.

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Show Respect

Listen from the First Sentence

Be Mindful

Keep Quiet

Ask Questions

Paraphrase and Summarize

Remember What Was Said

Involve Your Body

Test Your OB Knowledge

Susan attended her company’s annual meeting where she was not very interested in the presentation and did not try to receive and decode the messages. What is Susan’s likely listening style?

Active

Detached

Involved

Defensive

Passive

Chapter 9 | Slide ‹#›

The answer is (E).

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Gender, Generations, and Communication

What is Linguistic Style?

Characteristic speaking pattern where we:

Use culturally learned signals to communicate what we mean

Interpret others’ meaning

Evaluate one another as people

Chapter 9 | Slide 19

Differences in communication between men, women, and generations are partly caused by the array of linguistic styles people use.

Linguistic style refers to a person’s characteristic speaking pattern. It includes such features as directness or indirectness, pacing and pausing, word choice, and the use of such elements as jokes, figures of speech, stories, questions, and apologies. In other words, linguistic style is a set of culturally learned signals by which we not only communicate what we mean but also interpret others’ meaning and evaluate one another as people.

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Gender, Generations, and Communication

Communication Differences between Women and Men

Some researchers believe differences are due to:

Inherited biological differences between men and women

Chapter 9 | Slide 20

Interpersonal differences between women and men are due to inherited biological differences between the sexes.

This perspective, which also is called the “evolutionary psychology” or “Darwinian perspective,” attributes gender differences in communication to drives, needs, and conflicts associated with reproductive strategies used by women and men

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Gender, Generations, and Communication

Communication Differences between Women and Men

Chapter 9 | Slide 21

The Male Perspective. Males are expected to communicate more aggressively, interrupt others more than women, and hide their emotions because they have an inherent desire to possess features attractive to females. Men also see conversations as negotiations in which people try to achieve and maintain the upper hand.

The Female Perspective. According to “social role theory,” females and males learn ways of speaking while growing up. Research shows that girls learn conversational skills and habits that focus on rapport and relationships, whereas boys learn skills and habits that focus on status and hierarchies. Accordingly, women come to view communication as a network of connections in which conversations are negotiations for closeness. This orientation leads women to seek and give confirmation and support more so than men.

Research demonstrates that women and men communicate differently in a number of ways. Women are more likely to share credit for success, to ask questions for clarification, to tactfully give feedback by mitigating criticism with praise, and to indirectly tell others what to do.

In contrast, men are more likely to boast about themselves, to bluntly give feedback, and to withhold compliments, and are less likely to ask questions and to admit fault or weaknesses.

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Male Perspective

Expected to communicate more aggressively

Hide emotions