My General Psychology W7

Social Psychology, Psychological Disorders, & Therapy

Read Chapters 13-15

Assignment- 1 page

Week 7 Assignment

Select a movie or movie character and give a brief synopsis of how psychology drives the movie or character?

Example. Silence of the Lamb. Anthony Hopkins plays Dr Hannibal Lector, a clinical psychiatrist who had a psychotic episode and started to harm innocent people. Jodie Foster plays a clinical psychologist who is performing an assessment on Dr. Lector but finds herself in harm’s way as a result of Dr. Lector’s influence.

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Psychology James S. Nairne

Purdue University

th edition6

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Psychology, 6th edition James S. Nairne

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● To Beverly H. Nairne

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James S. Nairne is the Reece McGee Distinguished Professor of Psychological Sciences

at Purdue University. Recognized internationally as both a scholar and a teacher, he has

received numerous teaching honors at Purdue, including the Liberal Arts Excellence in

Education Award and the Outstanding Undergraduate Teaching Award. In 2001, he was

named a Fellow of the Purdue Teaching Academy, and in 2004 he was given a permanent

position in Purdue’s Book of Great Teachers. He is also former director of the Honors Pro-

gram for the College of Liberal Arts. Professor Nairne received his Ph.D. in Human Mem-

ory and Cognition from Yale University.

About the Author

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1 • An Introduction to Psychology 2 2 • The Tools of Psychological Research 26 3 • Biological Processes 56 4 • Human Development 90 5 • Sensation and Perception 130 6 • Consciousness 170 7 • Learning From Experience 204 8 • Memory 236 9 • Language and Thought 270 1 0 • Intelligence 304 1 1 • Motivation and Emotion 336 1 2 • Personality 372 1 3 • Social Psychology 402 1 4 • Psychological Disorders 442 1 5 • Therapy 474 1 6 • Stress and Health 506

Appendix A–1

Glossary G–1

References R–1

Indexes I–1

● Brief Contents

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● Contents

1 • An Introduction to Psychology 2 psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN What Is the Function of Psychology? 3

Defining and Describing Psychology 5 Learning Goals 5 What Psychologists Do 6

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Want to Do Well on the Test? Test Yourself! 9

Recall-Monitor-Recall 1.1 9

Tracing the Development of Psychology: A Brief History 10 Learning Goals 10 Mind and Body: Are They the Same? 10 Nature and Nurture: Where Does

Knowledge Come From? 11 The First Schools: Psychology as Science 12 Freud and the Humanists: The Influence

of the Clinic 15 The First Women in Psychology 16 Recall-Monitor-Recall 1.2 17

Identifying the Focus of Modern Psychology 18 Learning Goals 18 Cognitive Factors 18 Biological Factors 19 Evolutionary Psychology 20 Cultural Factors 21 Recall-Monitor-Recall 1.3 22

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN The Function of Psychology 23 cHApTeR RevIew Interactive Summary 24 Terms to Remember 25 Media Resources 25

2 • The Tools of Psychological Research 26 psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN How Do Psychologists Unlock the Secrets of Behavior and Mind? 27

Observing Behavior: Descriptive Research 30 Learning Goals 30 Naturalistic Observation: Focusing on Real Life 31 Case Studies: Focusing on the Individual 32 Surveys: Focusing on the Group 32 Psychological Tests: Assessing

Individual Differences 34 Statistics: Summarizing and Interpreting the Data 35

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

How Should a Teacher Grade? 37

Recall-Monitor-Recall 2.1 38

Predicting Behavior: Correlational Research 38 Learning Goals 38 Correlational Research 39 Correlations and Causality 41 Recall-Monitor-Recall 2.2 42

Explaining Behavior: Experimental Research 42 Learning Goals 42 Independent and Dependent Variables 43 Experimental Control 44 Expectancies and Biases in Experimental Research 46 Generalizing Experimental Conclusions 48 Recall-Monitor-Recall 2.3 48

The Ethics of Research: Human and Animal Guidelines 49 Learning Goals 49 Informed Consent 49

vii

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viii | Contents

Debriefing and Confidentiality 50 The Ethics of Animal Research 50 Recall-Monitor-Recall 2.4 52

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN Unlocking the Secrets of Mind and Behavior 53 cHApTeR RevIew Interactive Summary 54 Terms to Remember 55 Media Resources 55

3 • Biological Processes 56 psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN What Are Biological Processes For? 57

Communicating Internally: Connecting World and Brain 58 Learning Goals 58 The Anatomy of Neurons 60 Neural Transmission:

The Electrochemical Message 60 The Communication Network 65 Recall-Monitor-Recall 3.1 65

Initiating Behavior: A Division of Labor 66 Learning Goals 66 The Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems 66 How We Determine Brain Function 68 Brain Structures and Their Functions 71

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Mirror Neurons: Solving the “Other Mind Problem” 77

The Divided Brain 77 Recall-Monitor-Recall 3.2 79

Regulating Growth and Internal Functions: Extended Communication 80 Learning Goals 80 The Endocrine System 80 Do Men and Woman Have Different Brains? 81 Recall-Monitor-Recall 3.3 82

Adapting and Transmitting the Genetic Code 83 Learning Goals 83 Natural Selection and Adaptations 83 Genetic Principles 84 Genes and Behavior 85 Recall–Monitor–Recall 3.4 86

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN What Biological Processes Are For 87 cHApTeR RevIew Interactive Summary 87 Terms to Remember 88 Media Resources 89

4 • Human Development 90 psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN What Is Development For? 91

Developing Physically 92 Learning Goals 92 The Stages of Prenatal Development 92 Growth During Infancy 95 From Crawling to Walking 96 From Toddlerhood to Adolescence 97 Becoming an Adult 97 Recall-Monitor-Recall 4.1 99

Developing Intellectually 100 Learning Goals 100 The Tools of Investigation 100 The Growing Perceptual World 102 Piaget and the Development of Thought 104 The Sensorimotor Period: Birth to Two Years 105 The Preoperational Period: Two to Seven Years 105 The Concrete Operational Period: Seven to Eleven

Years 106 The Formal Operational Period: Eleven to

Adulthood 107 Challenges to Piaget’s Theory 108 Core Knowledge 110 Moral Development: Learning Right

From Wrong 111 Recall-Monitor-Recall 4.2 113

Developing Socially and Personally 114 Learning Goals 114 Forming Bonds With Others 114 The Origins of Attachment 114 Types of Attachment 116 Do Early Attachments Matter Later in Life? 117 Day Care: What Are the Long-Term Effects? 118

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Choosing a Day-Care Center 120

Forming a Personal Identity: Erikson’s Crises of Development 120

Gender-Role Development 123 Growing Old 124 Death and Dying 125 Recall-Monitor-Recall 4.3 127

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN What Development Is For 127 cHApTeR RevIew Interactive Summary 128 Terms to Remember 129 Media Resources 129

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Contents | ix

5 • Sensation and Perception 130 psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN How Do We Build the World of Experience? 131

Vision: The World of Color and Form 133 Learning Goals 133 Translating the Message 133 Identifying the Message Components 138 Producing Stable Interpretations: Visual

Perception 142

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Creating Illusions Of Depth 147

Recall-Monitor-Recall 5.1 151

Hearing: Identifying and Localizing Sounds 152 Learning Goals 152 Translating the Message 152 Identifying the Message Components 154 Producing Stable Interpretations: Auditory

Perception 155 Recall-Monitor-Recall 5.2 156

The Skin and Body Senses: From Touch to Movement 157 Learning Goals 157 Touch 157 Temperature 158 Experiencing Pain 158 The Kinesthetic Sense 159 The Vestibular Sense 160 Recall-Monitor-Recall 5.3 160

The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste 161 Learning Goals 161 Smell 161 Taste 162 Recall-Monitor-Recall 5.4 163

From the Physical to the Psychological 163 Learning Goals 163 Stimulus Detection 164 Difference Thresholds 165 Sensory Adaptation 166 Recall-Monitor-Recall 5.5 166

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN How We Build the World of Experience 166 cHApTeR RevIew Interactive Summary 167 Terms to Remember 169 Media Resources 169

6 • Consciousness 170 psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN What is Consciousness For? 171

Setting Priorities for Mental Functioning: Attention 173 Learning Goals 173 Experiments on Attention: Dichotic Listening 173 Processing Without Attention: Automaticity 175

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Cell Phones And Driving 176

Disorders of Attention 177 Recall-Monitor-Recall 6.1 179

Sleeping and Dreaming 179 Learning Goals 179 Biological Rhythms 180 The Characteristics of Sleep 180 The Function of Sleep 184 The Function of REM and Dreaming 185 Disorders of Sleep 187 Recall-Monitor-Recall 6.2 189

Altering Awareness: Psychoactive Drugs 190 Learning Goals 190 Drug Actions and Effects 190 Categories of Psychoactive Drugs 191 Psychological Factors 194 Recall-Monitor-Recall 6.3 195

Altering Awareness: Induced States 195 Learning Goals 195 The Phenomenon of Hypnosis 196 Explaining Hypnosis 198 Meditation 199 Recall-Monitor-Recall 6.4 200

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN What Consciousness Is For 200

cHApTeR RevIew Interactive Summary 201 Terms to Remember 203 Media Resources 203

7 • Learning From Experience 204 psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN How Do We Learn From Experience? 205

Learning About Events: Noticing and Ignoring 206

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x | Contents

Learning Goal 206 Habituation and Sensitization 206 Recall-Monitor-Recall 7.1 208

Learning What Events Signal: Classical Conditioning 209 Learning Goals 209 The Terminology of Classical Conditioning 209 Forming the CS–US Connection 210 Conditioned Responding: Why Does

It Develop? 211 Second-Order Conditioning 212

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Taste Aversions 213

Stimulus Generalization 214 Stimulus Discrimination 215 An Application: Drug Tolerance 215 Extinction: When the CS No Longer Signals

the US 216 Conditioned Inhibition: Signaling the Absence

of the US 217 Recall-Monitor-Recall 7.2 219

Learning About the Consequences of Behavior: Operant Conditioning 219 Learning Goals 219 The Law of Effect 220 The Discriminative Stimulus: Knowing When to

Respond 221 The Nature of Reinforcement 222 Punishment: Lowering the Likelihood of a

Response 223 Schedules of Reinforcement 224 Shaping: Acquiring Complex Behaviors 227 Biological Constraints on Learning 227 Recall-Monitor-Recall 7.3 228

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Superstitious Behavior 229

Learning From Others: Observational Learning 229 Learning Goals 229 Modeling: Learning From Others 230 Practical Considerations 231 Recall-Monitor-Recall 7.4 232

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN Learning From Experience 232 cHApTeR RevIew Interactive Summary 233 Terms to Remember 234 Media Resources 235

8 • Memory 236 psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN What Is Memory For? 237

Remembering Over the Short Term 239 Learning Goals 239 Sensory Memory: The Icon and the Echo 239 Short-Term Memory: Prolonging the Present 241 The Working Memory Model 245 Recall-Monitor-Recall 8.1 246

Storing Information for the Long Term 246 Learning Goals 246 What Is Stored in Long-Term Memory? 246 Elaboration: Connecting Material to Existing

Knowledge 247 Mnemonic Devices 250 Recall-Monitor-Recall 8.2 253

Recovering Information From Cues 253 Learning Goals 253 The Importance of Retrieval Cues 253 Reconstructive Remembering 256

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Self-Testing “Appropriately” for Exams 257

Remembering Without Awareness: Implicit Memory 259

Recall-Monitor-Recall 8.3 260

Updating Memory 261 Learning Goals 261 How Quickly Do We Forget? 261 Why Do We Forget? 262 Motivated Forgetting 263 The Neuroscience of Forgetting 265 Recall-Monitor-Recall 8.4 267

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN  What Memory Is For 267 cHApTeR RevIew Interactive Summary 268 Terms to Remember 269 Media Resources 269

9 • Language and Thought 270 psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN What Are Cognitive Processes For? 271

Communicating With Others 273 Learning Goals 273

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Contents | xi

The Structure of Language 273 Language Comprehension 276 Language Development 277 Language in Nonhuman Species 279 Is Language an Adaptation? 281 Recall-Monitor-Recall 9.1 282

Classifying and Categorizing 282 Learning Goals 282 Defining Category Membership 283 Do People Store Category Prototypes? 284 The Hierarchical Structure of Categories 286 Where Do Categories Come From? 286 Recall-Monitor-Recall 9.2 287

Solving Problems 287 Learning Goals 287 Representing Problem Information 288 Developing Problem-Solving Strategies 290 Reaching the Aha! Moment: Insight 292

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Having Difficulty? Take a Break! 293

Recall-Monitor-Recall 9.3 293

Making Decisions 294 Learning Goals 294 Framing Decision Alternatives 294 Decision-Making Biases 295 Decision-Making Heuristics 296 Recall-Monitor-Recall 9.4 299

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN What Cognitive Processes Are For 300 cHApTeR RevIew Interactive Summary 301 Terms to Remember 302 Media Resources 303

10 • Intelligence 304 psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN How Do Psychologists Study Intelligence? 305

Conceptualizing Intelligence 307 Learning Goals 307 Psychometrics: Measuring the Mind 307 Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence 310 Multiple Intelligences: Gardner’s Case Study

Approach 310 Multiple Intelligences: Sternberg’s Triarchic

Theory 312 Recall-Monitor-Recall 10.1 313

Measuring Individual Differences 314 Learning Goals 314 The Components of a Good Test 314 IQ: The Intelligence Quotient 316 Extremes of Intelligence 318 The Validity of Intelligence Testing 319 Individual Differences Related to Intelligence 321

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Can Mozart’s Music Make You Smarter? 323

Recall-Monitor-Recall 10.2 324

Discovering the Sources of Intelligence 324 Learning Goals 324 The Stability of IQ 325 Nature: The Genetic Argument 327 Nurture: The Environmental Argument 329 The Interaction of Nature and Nurture 331 Recall-Monitor-Recall 10.3 333

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN How Psychologists Study Intelligence 333 cHApTeR RevIew Interactive Summary 334 Terms to Remember 335 Media Resources 335

11 • Motivation and Emotion 336 psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN What Are Motivation and Emotion For? 337

Activating Behavior 339 Learning Goals 339 Internal Factors: Instincts and Drive 339 External Factors: Incentive Motivation 340 Achievement Motivation 341 Intrinsic Motivation 342 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 343 Recall-Monitor-Recall 11.1 344

Meeting Biological Needs: Hunger  and Eating 345 Learning Goals 345 Internal Factors Controlling Hunger 345 External Factors Controlling Hunger 347

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Dietary Variety and Weight Gain 348

Regulating Body Weight 348 Eating Disorders 350 Recall-Monitor-Recall 11.2 352

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xii | Contents

Meeting Biological Needs: Sexual Behavior 352 Learning Goals 352 The Sexual Response Cycle 353 Internal Factors 354 External Factors 355 Mate Selection 356 Sexual Orientation 357 Recall-Monitor-Recall 11.3 358

Expressing and Experiencing Emotion 359 Learning Goals 359 Are There Basic Emotions? 359 The Emotional Experience: Arousal 362 The Emotional Experience: Subjective

Reactions 362 Theories of Emotion: Body to Mind 365 Recall-Monitor-Recall 11.4 368

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN What Motivation and Emotion Are For 369 cHApTeR RevIew Interactive Summary 370 Terms to Remember 371 Media Resources 371

12 • Personality 372 psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN What Is Personality For? 373

Conceptualizing and Measuring Personality 374 Learning Goals 374 The Factor Analytic Approach 375 Allport’s Trait Theory 377 Personality Tests 378 Recall-Monitor-Recall 12.1 381

Determining How Personality Develops 381 Learning Goals 381 The Psychodynamic Approach of Freud 381 Humanistic Approaches to Personality 386 Social–Cognitive Approaches to Personality 389 Recall-Monitor-Recall 12.2 393

Resolving the Person–Situation Debate 394 Learning Goals 394 The Person–Situation Debate 394

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

The Value of Self-Monitoring 396

Genetic Factors in Personality 396

Recall-Monitor-Recall 12.3 399

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN What Personality Is For 399 cHApTeR RevIew Interactive Summary 400 Terms to Remember 401 Media Resources 401

13 • Social Psychology 402 psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN What Are Social Processes For? 403

Interpreting the Behavior of Others: Social Cognition 404 Learning Goals 404 Person Perception: How Do We Form

Impressions of Others? 404

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Combating Prejudice 409

Attribution Theory: Attributing Causes to Behavior 409

Attitudes and Attitude Change 413 Recall-Monitor-Recall 13.1 417

Behaving in the Presence of Others: Social Influence 418 Learning Goals 418 Social Facilitation and Interference 418 Social Influences on Altruism:

The Bystander Effect 419 The Power of the Group 421 Group Decision Making 424 The Power of Authority: Obedience 426 The Role of Culture 429 Recall-Monitor-Recall 13.2 430

Establishing Relations With Others 431 Learning Goals 431 What Makes a Face Attractive? 431 Determinants of Liking and Loving 433 The Psychology of Romantic Love 436 Recall-Monitor-Recall 13.3 438

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN What Social Processes Are For 438 cHApTeR RevIew Interactive Summary 439 Terms to Remember 440 Media Resources 441

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Contents | xiii

14 • Psychological Disorders 442 psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN What Are Psychological Disorders? 443

Conceptualizing Abnormality: What Is Abnormal Behavior? 445 Learning Goals 445 Characteristics of Abnormal Behavior 445 The Concept of Insanity 447 The Medical Model: Conceptualizing

Abnormality as a Disease 448 Problems Associated With Labeling 448 Recall-Monitor-Recall 14.1 450

Classifying Psychological Disorders 450 Learning Goals 450 Anxiety Disorders: Fear and Apprehension 452 Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder 454 Somatic Symptom Disorders: Body and Mind 455 Dissociative Disorders: Disruptions

of Identity or Awareness 456 Depressive and Bipolar Disorders 457

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Suicide Prevention 460

Schizophrenia: Faulty Thought Processes 460 Personality Disorders 462 Recall-Monitor-Recall 14.2 463

Understanding Psychological Disorders: Biological, Cognitive, or Environmental? 463 Learning Goals 463 Biological Factors: Is It in the Brain or Genes? 464 Cognitive Factors: Is It Maladaptive

Thoughts and Beliefs? 467 Environmental Factors: Is It Learned

Through Experience? 468 Recall-Monitor-Recall 14.3 470

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN What Psychological Disorders Are 471 cHApTeR RevIew Interactive Summary 472 Terms to Remember 473 Media Resources 473

15 • Therapy 474 psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN What Is Psychotherapy For? 475

Treating the Body: Biomedical Therapies 477

Learning Goals 477 Drug Therapies 477 Electroconvulsive Therapy 480 Psychosurgery 481 Recall-Monitor-Recall 15.1 482

Treating the Mind: Insight Therapies 483 Learning Goals 483 Psychoanalysis: Resolving Unconscious Conflicts 483 Cognitive Therapies: Changing Maladaptive

Beliefs 485 Humanistic Therapies: Treating the

Human Spirit 488 Group Therapy 491 Recall-Monitor-Recall 15.2 492

Treating the Environment: Behavioral Therapies 492 Learning Goals 492 Conditioning Techniques 493 Applying Rewards and Punishments 495 Social Skills Training 496 Recall-Monitor-Recall 15.3 497

Evaluating and Choosing Psychotherapy 498 Learning Goals 498 Clinical Evaluation Research 498 Common Factors Across Psychotherapies 500

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Choosing a Therapist 501

Recall-Monitor-Recall 15.4 502

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN What Psychotherapy Is For 503 cHApTeR RevIew Interactive Summary 504 Terms to Remember 505 Media Resources 505

16 • Stress and Health 506 psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN What Is the Connection Between Stress and Health? 507

Experiencing Stress 508 Learning Goals 508 The Stress Response 509 Cognitive Appraisal 511 External Sources of Stress 511 Internal Sources of Stress 515 Recall-Monitor-Recall 16.1 518

Reacting to Prolonged Stress 518

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xiv | Contents

Learning Goals 518 Physical Consequences of Stress 518 Psychological Consequences of Stress 520 Recall-Monitor-Recall 16.2 523

Reducing and Coping With Stress 523 Learning Goals 523 Relaxation Techniques 523 Social Support 525

pRAcTIcAl soluTIoNs

Pet Support 526

Reappraising the Situation 527 Recall-Monitor-Recall 16.3 529

Living a Healthy Lifestyle 529 Learning Goals 529 Get Fit: The Value of Aerobic Exercise 529 Don’t Smoke: Tobacco and Health 530 Eat Right: The Value of Proper Nutrition 531

Avoid Risky Behavior: Protect Yourself From Disease 532

Recall-Monitor-Recall 16.4 533

psycHoloGy foR A ReAsoN The Connection Between Stress and Health 534 cHApTeR RevIew Interactive Summary 535 Terms to Remember 536 Media Resources 536

Appendix A–1

Glossary G–1

References R–1

Indexes I–1

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xv

Preface To the Student Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mind. It can be a tough subject, but I’m confident that you’ll find it fun and even surprising at the same time. There are scores of research studies and hundreds of isolated facts scattered throughout this book, but my main goal is to help you understand the function of psychology in your life—to tell you what psychology is for! Toward that end, I’ll show you how your behaviors, thoughts, and emotions help you solve important problems every day.

Everything we do is influenced, in part, by our need to adapt to rapidly changing situations. We’re constantly dipping into our psychological “tool kit” to solve specific social, personal, or environmental problems. For example, before you can react, your brain needs to communicate with the environment and with the rest of your body. To communicate internally, your body uses the nervous system, the endocrine system, and to some extent, even the genetic code. We also need to translate the messages from the environment, which come in a variety of forms, into the internal language of the nervous system (which is electrochemical). We solve this problem through our various sensory systems, such as vision and audition. Our survival also depends on our ability to communicate through language and other nonverbal forms of communication.

You’ll soon see that many of our behaviors and thoughts can be viewed as solutions to such problems or demands. But I don’t think you should be expected to understand a topic unless you first know what it’s for! Therefore, each chapter begins with a brief preview section, e.g., Psychology For a Reason, What Is Consciousness For? that asks about the function and purpose of the psychological processes that we’ll be examining. Throughout the chapter I’ll show you how these particular processes help us meet the challenges that we face. Then, at the end of the chapter, a review sec- tion, e.g., Psychology For a Reason, What Consciousness Is For, summarizes the function and purpose of the psychological processes discussed in the chapter.

I invite you to browse through the rest of the preface for a preview of how this book is organized. And I hope you will soon begin applying what you learn to situ- ations in your daily life. The study of psychology may be challenging, but above all else it is relevant to everything we do. Have fun!

To the Instructor One of the first hurdles we face as instructors of introductory psychology is convinc- ing students that psychology is more than just the study of abnormal behavior. Intro- duce yourself as a psychologist, and you’re likely to get a response like “Don’t analyze me!” or “I’d better watch what I say around you!” It takes time for students to realize that psychology is a vast interdisciplinary field that includes all aspects of both nor- mal and abnormal behavior. Even after exposure to its breadth, the topics of psychol- ogy can remain mysterious and forbidding. Take a look at a typical chapter on learn- ing, for example, and its contents seem to bear little resemblance to our everyday understanding of what it means to “learn.” There are extended discussions of drool- ing dogs and key-pecking pigeons, but little about the connection between condition- ing procedures and the learning problems we face on a daily basis.

In Psychology, Sixth Edition, I once again focus extensively on the function and purpose of psychological processes. Instead of leading with the facts and methods

Copyright 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

 

 

xvi | Preface

specific to a topic, I introduce each topic as a kind of “solution” to a pressing envi- ronmental or conceptual challenge. For example, if you want to understand how we learn about the signaling properties of events (problem), we can look to classical con- ditioning (solution). Notice the shift in emphasis: Instead of topic followed by func- tion, it’s function followed by topic. I believe this kind of “functional approach” offers a number of advantages:

1. The student has a reason to follow the discussion. 2. Because the discussion is about an adaptive or conceptual problem, it naturally

promotes critical thinking. The student sees the connection between the prob- lem and the solution.

3. The adaptive problem-solving theme extends across chapters. 4. The organization provides an effective learning framework.

Each chapter is organized around a set of topics that (a) focus the discussion on the functional relevance of the material, and (b) demonstrate that we think and act for adaptive reasons. When we view behavior as the product of adaptive systems, psychology begins to make more sense. Students learn that behaviors (including the methods of psychologists!) are reactions to particular problems. When we emphasize adaptiveness, we relax our egocentric view of the world and increase our sensitivity to why behavior is so diverse, both within and across species. Our appreciation of individuality and diversity is enhanced by understanding that differences are natural consequences of adaptations to the environment.

Changes For the Sixth Edition Some of the major content changes in the sixth edition are highlighted below. In ad- dition, there are numerous editorial changes throughout these chapters—I’ve con- tinued to make the writing simpler and clearer. I’ve added new references through- out, although I’ve tried to keep the primary and classic references in place where appropriate.

Pedagogical Changes Because I don’t believe students can easily understand a topic unless they first know what it’s for, each chapter in the Sixth Edition begins with a brief preview section, e.g., Psychology For a Reason, What Is Consciousness For? that asks about the function and purpose of the psychological processes discussed in the chapter. A bookend-style feature at the end of the chapter, e.g., Psychology For a Reason, What Consciousness Is For, summarizes the function and purpose of the psychological processes discussed in the chapter. As in previous editions, the Interactive Summary, Terms to Remember, and Media Resources sections complete the end-of-chapter pedagogy.

In addition, I’ve added a new pedagogical feature that is designed to improve student comprehension and retention. Through cutting-edge research on the cog- nitive science of education, it has become clear that practicing retrieval through self-testing is the ideal way for students to study. I discuss the science of retrieval practice and its effects on comprehension and retention in a new Practical Solutions feature in Chapter 1, Want to Do Well on the Test? Test Yourself ! Then, in the Recall– Monitor–Recall at the end of each section of every chapter, students are reminded of the value of self-testing, cautioned to avoid overconfidence, and asked to recall the key points from the section—with the book closed. A short series of questions helps students monitor their learning. It is my hope that students who read my textbook will integrate this recall-monitor-recall system into their study habits throughout their college careers.

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Preface | xvii

Content Changes Here are some of the specific content changes:

• New discussion of forensic psychologists (Chapter 1) • New coverage of the infamous “Sybil” case (Chapter 2) • Expanded coverage of glial cell function and the neurotransmitter glutamate

(Chapter 3) • New case studies of brain damage and split-brain patients (Chapter 3) • New Practical Solutions feature, titled Mirror Neurons: Solving the Other-Mind

Problem (Chapter 3) • New section on “core knowledge” development (Chapter 4) • New section on emotion (the “gut”) and moral decision making (Chapter 4) • New section on the relationship between perception and action (Chapter 5) • Reformulation of the sleep stages, per new conventions (Chapter 6) • New coverage of dreams and behavior (Chapter 6) • New coverage of habituation and eating (Chapter 7) • Expanded coverage of the development of drug tolerance (Chapter 7) • New discussion of mirror neurons and observational learning (Chapter 7) • New discussion of the relationship between working memory capacity and

performance of higher order cognitive tasks (Chapter 8) • New discussion of retrieval practice (self-testing) and its role in long-term

retention (Chapter 8) • Reworked sections on grammar and pragmatics in language (Chapter 9) • New section on the origin of categories (Chapter 9) • Expanded coverage of decision-making heuristics (Chapter 9) • Expanded coverage of multiple intelligences (Chapter 10) • Updated coverage of intellectual disabilities (Chapter 10) • Expanded coverage of achievement motivation and Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

(Chapter 11) • Reworked section on the internal factors controlling hunger, with new emphasis

on satiation signals (Chapter 11) • Expanded coverage of eating disorders (Chapter 11) • New coverage of facial expressions and emotion (Chapter 11) • Expanded coverage of the Big Five personality traits (Chapter 12) • Expanded coverage of social neuroscience (Chapter 13) • New coverage of implicit versus explicit prejudice (Chapter 13) • New coverage of ostracism (Chapter 13) • Reworked coverage of the DSM (Chapter 14) • Reworked sections on psychological disorders (Chapter 14) • New coverage of glutamate and schizophrenia (Chapter 14) • New coverage of magnetic seizure therapy (Chapter 15) • Expanded coverage of personality and stress, including Type D personality

characteristics and heart disease (Chapter 16) • Updated coverage of stress and the immune response (Chapter 16) • Reworked coverage of PTSD (Chapter 16)

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xviii | Preface

Learning Supplements For Students Psychology, Sixth Edition, is supported by a state-of-the-art teaching and learning package.

Psychology CourseMate Cengage Learning’s Psychology CourseMate brings course concepts to life with interactive learning, study, and exam preparation tools that support the printed textbook. Access an integrated eBook, learning tools including glossaries, flash cards, quizzes, videos, and more in your Psychology CourseMate. Go to CengageBrain.com to register or purchase access.

 

Aplia helps you understand psychology as a science through fresh and compelling con- tent, brief engagement activities that illustrate key concepts, and thought-provoking questions.

• Engagement activities pique your interest and motivate you to learn about a con- cept. Short experiments, videos, and surveys provide a range of experiential learn- ing opportunities.

• Questions about real-world situations hone critical thinking skills. • Immediate, detailed explanations for every answer enhance comprehension. • Gradebook Analytics allow instructors to monitor and address performance.

Supplements For Teaching

Instructor’s Resource Manual (978-1-285-19016-7) This easy-to-use manual contains a preface that includes a section mapping the main text to American Psychological Association Goals and Objectives. Each chapter con- tains content organized by major chapter section: chapter outlines, learning goals, lecture elaborations, demonstrations/activities/student projects, student critical thinking journal, making connections, incorporating diversity, focus on research, ex- tending the practical solutions, questions for study and review, answers to the in-text critical thinking questions, film and video suggestions, recommended reading, and “What’s on the Web,” activities.

Test Bank (978-1-285-19017-4) Including more than 300 questions per chapter, this comprehensive Test Bank offers a great variety of items for test creation. Question types include multiple-choice, fill- in-the-blank, essay, and true-false. Each question is marked with the in-text reference, type of question, difficulty level, and correct answer.

Copyright 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

 

 

Preface | xix

• Approximately 250 multiple-choice questions per chapter • Approximately 40 sentence fill-in-the-blanks • Approximately 20 essay questions per chapter • Approximately 20 true/false questions per chapter

Each chapter contains a grid that indicates which multiple-choice, sentence comple- tion, essay, and true/false questions correspond to each other and the main learning goal (from main text) for the chapter

PowerLecture With ExamView®

(978-1-285-41853-7) This one-stop resource provides you with tools to help you enhance your PowerPoint lectures, create exams, and create interactive PowerPoint lectures. The DVD includes:

• Chapter-by-chapter lecture outline slides with integrated art, a video library, and other integrated media.

• ExamView® computerized testing software. You can quickly create customized tests in print or online. The software contains all Test Bank questions in electronic format. It helps you create and customize tests in minutes. You can easily edit and import your own questions and graphics and edit and maneuver existing questions. ExamView® offers flexible delivery and the ability to test and grade online.

• Full text files of the Instructor’s Resource Manual and print Test Bank.

WebTutor™ Jumpstart your course with customizable, rich, text-specific content within your course management system. Whether you want to Web-enable your class or put an entire course online, WebTutor™ delivers. WebTutor™ offers a wide array of re- sources including access to the eBook, glossaries, flash cards, quizzes, videos, virtual psychology labs, and more.

Introductory Psychology, Vol. 1, BBC Motion Gallery Video (978-1-111-35260-8) Introductory Psychology, Vol. 1, drives home the relevance of course topics through short, provocative clips of current and historical events. Perfect for enriching lectures and engaging students in discussion, many of the segments on this volume have been gathered from BBC Motion Gallery. Ask your Cengage Learning representative for a list of contents.

ABC News on DVD: Introductory Psychology Volume 1: 978-0-495-50306-4 Volume 2: 978-0-495-59637-0 Volume 3: 978-0-495-60490-7 ABC Videos feature short, high-interest clips from current news events as well as historic raw footage going back 40 years. Perfect for discussion starters or to enrich your lectures and spark interest in the material in the text, these brief videos pro- vide students with a new lens through which to view the past and present, one that

Copyright 2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

 

 

xx | Preface

will greatly enhance their knowledge and understanding of significant events and open up to them new dimensions in learning. Clips are drawn from such programs as World News Tonight, Good Morning America, This Week, PrimeTime Live, 20/20, and Nightline, as well as numerous ABC News specials and material from the Associated Press Television News and British Movietone News collections.

Wadsworth Psychology: Research in Action Volume 1: 978-0-495-59520-5 Volume 2: 978-0-495-59813-8 Research in Action features the work of research psychologists to give students an opportunity to learn about cutting-edge research—not just who is doing it, but also how it is done, and how and where the results are being used. By taking students into the laboratories of both established and up-and-coming researchers, and by showing research results being applied outside of the laboratory, these videos offer insight into both the research process and the many ways in which real people’s lives are affected by research in the fields of psychology and neuroscience.

Wadsworth Guest Lecture Series (978-0-547-00401-3) The Guest Lecture Series features many talented teachers sharing their teaching tips and best practices on a wide range of topics, including: Rational Emotive Behav- ior Theory, Blogging as an Effective Tool, Demonstrations on Taste, Dramatizing Perspectives in Psychology, How to Teach Writing in Psychology, and more.

Acknowledgments My publisher deserves enormous credit for organizing the team and for helping me carry out my original plan for this book. I’ve had the opportunity to work with a number of very talented individuals during the past decade, especially my editors Jim Brace-Thompson, Stacey Purviance, Marianne Taflinger, Michele Sordi, and now Tim Matray. Each has been a supporter, friend, and source of countless ideas. The current edition has also benefited greatly from the work of two very fine develop- mental editors, Linda Stewart and Mary Falcon.

On the production side, the captain of the sixth edition team is Charlene Carpen- tier, content project manager, who held together the tight production schedule and coordinated the efforts of numerous people.

Of course, I could never have written this book without the help and guidance I received from the reviewers listed below. I hope they can see their mark on the book, because it’s substantial.

Reviewers of the Sixth Edition Pamela Auburn, University of Houston Downtown and Lonestar College; Roy Bau- meister, Florida State University; Jennifer L. Butler, Case Western Reserve Univer- sity; Kristie Campana, Minnesota State University–Mankato; Molly Fasser, Mira Costa College; Shirley-Anne Hensch, University of Wisconsin–Barron County; Dawn McBride, Illinois State University; Nicole Roberts, Arizona State University; Claire N. Rubman, Suffolk County Community College.

I’d like to express continued thanks to reviewers of previous editions, as well.

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Preface | xxi

Reviewers of the Fifth Edition Ellen Carpenter, Old Dominion University; Verne C. Cox, University of Texas at Ar- lington; Darlene Earley-Hereford, Southern Union State Community College; Jes- sica Dennis, California State University at Los Angeles; Bert Hayslip, Jr., University of North Texas; Stacy Harkins, University of Texas at Arlington; Kim Kinzig, Purdue University; Christopher E. Overtree, University of Massachusetts at Amherst; and Kathleen Torsney, William Paterson University.

Reviewers of the Fourth Edition Michael Allen, University of Northern Colorado; Deborah Bryant, Rutgers–The State University of New Jersey; Wendy Chambers, University of Georgia; Julia Chester, Purdue University; Gloria Cowan, California State University–San Bernardino; Les- lie Cramblet, Northern Arizona University; David Denton, Austin Peay State Uni- versity; Emily Elliott, Louisiana State University; August Hoffman, California State University–Northridge; Linda Jones, Blinn College; Linda Juang, San Francisco State University; Laura Madson, New Mexico State University; Glenn Meyer, Trinity Uni- versity; Todd Nelson, California State University–Stanislaus; David Perkins, Ball State University; Peter Pfordresher, University of Texas at San Antonio; Robert Smith, Marian College; Michael Strube, Washington University; Noreen Stuckless, York University; Cheryl Terrance, University of North Dakota; Sheree Watson, University of Southern Mississippi.

Reviewers of the Third Edition Cody Brooks, Denison University; Brad Caskey, University of Wisconsin, River Falls; Lynn Coffey, Minneapolis Community College; Donna Dahlgren, Indiana University Southeast; George Diekhoff, Midwestern State University; Diana Finley, Prince George’s Community College; Jill Folk, Kent State University; Nancy Franklin, State University of New York–Stony Brook; Adam Goodie, University of Georgia; Linda Jackson, Michigan State University; Joseph Karafa, Ferris State University; David Kreiner, Central Missouri State University; Daniel Leger, University of Nebraska; David Mitchell, Loyola University of Chicago; Sanford Pederson, University of Indianapolis; Faye Plascak-Craig, Marian Col- lege; Bridget Robinson-Riegler, Augsburg College; Kraig Schell, Angelo State University; Valerie Scott, Indiana University Southeast; Annette Taylor, University of San Diego; Or- ville Weiszhaar, Minneapolis Community College; Jennifer Wenner, Macalester College; and Leonard Williams, Rowan University. Survey Respondents: Tim Curran, Univer- sity of Colorado; Ellen Cotter, Georgia Southwestern State University; Jeffery Scott Mio, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona; Andrew R. Getzfeld, New Jersey City University; Wendy James-Aldridge, University of Texas–Pan American; Sam Gosling, University of Texas–Austin; Jeff Sandoz, The University of Louisiana at Lafayette; Kim MacLin, University of Texas, El Paso; Charles R. Geist, University of Alaska, Fairbanks; Dawn Blasko, Pennsylvania State University–Erie; Shirley-Anne Hensch, University of Wisconsin Center–Marshfield/Wood County; David P. J. Przybyla, Dension University; Anthony Hendrix, Waycross College; Mary Beth Ahlum, Nebraska Wesleyan Univer- sity; David Carscaddon, Gardner-Webb University; Michael Vitevitch, Indiana University; John Harrington, University of Maine at Presque Isle; Romona Franklin, LBW College; Glen Adams, Harding University; John Salamone, University of Connecticut; C. James Goodwin, Wheeling Jesuit University; Bradley J. Caskey, University of Wisconsin–River Falls; Daniel Linwick, University of Wisconsin–River Falls; Everett Bartholf, Missouri Baptist College; Haig Kouyoumdjian, University of Nebraska–Lincoln; Lynn L. Coffey, Minneapolis Community and Technical College; Randy Sprung, Dakota Wesleyan Uni- versity; Patrick Conley, University of Illinois at Chicago; Sheryl Hartman, Miami-Dade Community College; Lisa M. Huff, Washington University; Jim Rafferty, Bemidji State University; Barbara Blatchely, Agnes Scott College; Carolyn Becker, Trinity University; Frank Hager, Allegany College of Maryland; Maria Lynn Kessler, The Citadel; Charles

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xxii | Preface

Jeffreys, Seattle Central Community College; Valerie B. Scott, Indiana University South- east; Pat Crowe, NIACC; Edward Rossini, Roosevelt University; Richard S. Cimbalo, Daemen College; Donna Dahlgren, Indiana University Southeast; Thomas Frangicetto, Northampton Community College; Brenda Karns, Austin Peay State University; Buddy Grah, Austin Peay State University; Milton A. Norville, Florida Memorial College; S. F. A. Gates, Ohio University–Lancaster; Neil Sass, Heidelberg College; Christine Panyard, University of Detroit Mercy; Hoda Badr, University of Houston; Jon Springer, Kean Uni- versity; Morton Heller, Eastern Illinois University; Robert B. Castleberry, University of South Carolina–Sumter; Petri Paavilainen, University of Helsinki; Victoria Bedford, Uni- versity of Indianapolis; Marilyn Schroer, Newberry College; Terri Bonebright, DePauw University; Mark Smith, Davidson College; and Bruce J. Diamond, William Paterson University.

Dr. Valerie Scott of Indiana University Southeast generously agreed to solicit diary reviews from the following students. Their responses were helpful and encour- aging: Angela Lashley, Theresa Raymer, Brent Saylor, Mindy Goodale, Scott Hall, D. Jones, Heather Wenning, Rebecca Thompson, Holly Martin, Dan Abel, Edith Groves, Kim Krueger, J. Kittle, and Jennifer Hall.

Reviewers of the Second Edition Glen M. Adams, Harding University; Jeffrey Adams, St. Michael’s College; Mar- lene Adelman, Norwalk Community College; Robert Arkin, Ohio State University; Cheryl Arnold, Marietta College; Nolan Ashman, Dixie College; Elaine Baker, Mar- shall University; Charles Blaich, Wabash College; Dawn Blasko, Pennsylvania State University–Erie; Susan Bovair, College of Charleston; Stephen E. Buggie, University of New Mexico; Brian Burke, University of Arizona; James Butler, James Madison University; James F. Calhoun, University of Georgia; Kenneth Carter, Emory Univer- sity; Jill Cermele, Drew University; Catherine Cowan, Southwest State University; Patricia Crowe, North Iowa Community College; Tim Curran, Case Western Re- serve University; Robert M. Davis, Indiana University–Purdue University, Indianap- olis; Crystal Dehle, Idaho State University; Gina Dow, Denison University; Susann Doyle, Gainesville College; Patrick Drumm, Ohio University; Maryann Dubree, Madison Area Tech College; Peter Dufall, Smith College; Joseph Ferrari, DePaul University; Paul Foos, University of North Carolina–Charlotte; Kathleen Flannery, Saint Anselm College; Susan Frantz, New Mexico State University; William R. Fry, Youngstown State University; Grace Galliano, Kennesaw State University; Stella Gar- cia, University of Texas–San Antonio; Robert Gehring, University of Southern Indi- ana; Judy Gentry, Columbus State Community College; Sandra Goss, University of Il- linois at Urbana–Champaign; Lynn Haller, Morehead State University; Suzy Horton, Mesa Community College; Wendy James-Aldridge, University of Texas–Pan Ameri- can; Cynthia Jenkins, Creighton University; Scott Johnson, John Wood Community College; Robert Kaleta, University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee; Deric Kenne, Missis- sippi State University; Stephen Kiefer, Kansas State University; Kris Klassen, North Idaho College; Stan Klein, University of California–Santa Barbara; Richard Leavy, Ohio Wesleyan University; Judith Levine, State University of New York–Farming- dale; Arlene Lundquist, Mount Union College; Molly Lynch, University of Texas– San Antonio; Salvador Macias III, University of South Carolina–Sumter; Douglas W. Matheson, University of the Pacific; Yancy McDougal, University of South Carolina– Spartanburg; Susan H. McFadden, University of Wisconsin; Glenn E. Meyer, Trin- ity University; David B. Mitchell, Loyola University, Chicago; William Nast, Bishop State Community College; Donald Polzella, University of Dayton; Pamela Regan, California State University–Los Angeles; Linda Reinhardt, University of Wiscon- sin–Rock County; Catherine Sanderson, Amherst College; Stephen Saunders, Mar- quette University; Susan Shapiro, Indiana University East; John E. Sparrow, Univer- sity of New Hampshire–Manchester; Jon Springer, Kean University; Tracie Stewart,

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Preface | xxiii

Bard College; Bethany Stillion, Clayton College and State University; Thomas Swan, Siena College; Dennis Sweeney, California University–Pennsylvania; Thomas Tim- merman, Austin Peay State University; Peter Urcuioli, Purdue University; Lori R. Van Wallendael, University of North Carolina–Charlotte; David Wasieleski, Valdosta State University; Diane Wentworth, Fairleigh Dickinson University; Lisa Weyandt, Central Washington University; Fred Whitford, Montana State University; and Steve Withrow, Guilford Tech Community College.

Reviewers of the First Edition Karin Ahlm, DePauw University; Mary Ann Baenninger, Trenton State College; Daniel R. Bellack, Trident Technical College; Ira Bernstein, University of Texas at Ar- lington; Kenneth Bordens, Indiana University–Purdue University Fort Wayne; Nancy S. Breland, Trenton State College; James Calhoun, University of Georgia; D. Bruce Carter, Syracuse University; John L. Caruso, University of Massachusetts–Dart- mouth; Regina Conti, Colgate University; Eric Cooley, Western Oregon State Col- lege; Randall Engle, University of South Carolina, Columbia; Roy Fontaine, Penn- sylvania College of Technology; Nelson L. Freedman, Queen’s University, Ontario, Canada; Richard Froman, John Brown University; Grace Galliano, Kennesaw State College; Eugene R. Gilden, Linfield College; Perilou Goddard, Northern Kentucky University; Tim Goldsmith, University of New Mexico; Joel Grace, Mansfield Univer- sity; Charles R. Grah, Austin Peay State University; Terry R. Greene, Franklin & Mar- shall College; George Hampton, University of Houston–Downtown; Linda Heath, Loyola University of Chicago; Phyllis Heath, Central Michigan University; Shirley- Anne Hensch, University of Wisconsin Center–Marshfield/Wood County; Michael Hillard, University of New Mexico; Vivian Jenkins, University of Southern Indiana; James J. Johnson, Illinois State University; Timothy Johnston, University of North Carolina at Greensboro; John Jung, California State University–Long Beach; Salvador Macias III, University of South Carolina at Sumter; Carolyn Mangelsdorf, University of Washington; Edmund Martin, Georgia Tech Michael McCall, Ithaca College; Lau- rence Miller, Western Washington University; Carol Pandey, Pierce College; Blaine F. Peden, University of Wisconsin–Eau Claire; William J. Pizzi, Northeastern Illinois University; Anne D. Simons, University of Oregon; Stephen M. Smith, Texas A & M University; John E. Sparrow, University of New Hampshire–Manchester; Irene Staik, University of Montevallo; Robert Thompson, Shoreline Community College; Diane Tucker, University of Alabama–Birmingham; John Uhlarik, Kansas State University; Lori Van Wallendael, University of North Carolina at Charlotte; Fred Whitford, Mon- tana State University; Carsh Wilturner, Green River Community College; and Debo- rah Winters, New Mexico State University.

We offer special thanks to the following professors and their students for conduct- ing student reviews of the manuscript: F. Samuel Bauer, Christopher Newport Univer- sity; Gabriel P. Frommer, Indiana University; R. Martin Lobdell, Pierce College; Robert M. Stern, Pennsylvania State University; and the students of Dominican College.

Many colleagues and students at Purdue also played very important roles in creat- ing the final product, often suffering through questions about one research area or an- other. Each, along with my patient family, deserves considerable thanks.

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Psychology

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2

© OMG/Jupiter Images

1 An Introduction to Psychology

PSYCHOLOGY FOR A REASON What Is the Function of Psychology?

Defining and Describing Psychology Learning Goals What Psychologists Do

PRACtiCAL SOLutiONS Want to Do Well on the Test? Test Yourself!

Recall-Monitor-Recall 1.1

Tracing the Development of Psychology: A Brief History

Learning Goals Mind and Body: Are They the Same? Nature and Nurture: Where Does

Knowledge Come From?

PSYCHOLOGY FOR A REASON The Function of Psychology

CHAPtER REviEw Interactive Summary Terms to Remember Media Resources

The First Schools: Psychology as Science Freud and the Humanists: The Influence

of the Clinic The First Women in Psychology Recall-Monitor-Recall 1.2

Identifying the Focus of Modern Psychology

Learning Goals Cognitive Factors Biological Factors Evolutionary Psychology Cultural Factors Recall-Monitor-Recall 1.3

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3

Welcome to the study of psychology—the scientific study of behavior and mind. If this is your first psychology course, expect to be surprised by what you find covered in this book. Most people think psychology deals mainly with the study of mental disorders—that is, depression, schizophrenia, or the things you com- monly see on Dr. Phil. It’s true that psychologists often treat psychological problems, but the image of psychology on the afternoon talk shows can be misleading. Did you know that psychologists tend to focus just as much on the study of normal behavior as they do on abnormal behavior?

In fact, most of the material in this book comes from the study of normal people. Psychologists study normal behavior for two main reasons: First, to under- stand the abnormal, it is necessary to understand normal functioning first, in the same way that medical doctors need to understand healthy bodies before they can under- stand sickness and disease. Second, improving our understanding of normal function- ing helps us gain more control over our environments and live more productive lives. As you’ll soon see, modern psychology has something to say about everything from the treatment of irrational fears (such as the fear of spiders) to the development of effective study skills—even to the design of the kitchen stove.

From time to time, you will learn things about yourself that may be difficult to match up with everyday experience. For example, you will discover that your per- sonal memories are not always accurate. Instead, what you remember is sometimes an elaborate reconstruction of the past, one that bears little resemblance to what actually occurred. You will learn that your beliefs—how you think you would act and treat others—can be easily changed in the face of a demanding situation. We will even consider the possibility that free will is an illusion—instead, your thoughts may be influenced by unconscious forces and natural drives that are not under your direct control. As the behavioral neuroscientist David Eagleman put it: “The brain runs its show incognito,” meaning that much of what we see and think is pro- duced by a brain working in secret, below conscious awareness (Eagleman, 2011, p. 12). Sound interesting? Scary? Well, be prepared: What you’ll learn may well change the way you view yourself, the world, and others around you.

● PSYCHOLOGY FOR A REASON What Is the Function of Psychology?

“The brain runs its show incognito” (© Cengage Learning 2014)

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4 | CHAPTER 1 An Introduction to Psychology

About This Book Throughout this book I present the topics of psychology from a “functional” perspective, which means I explain what a psychological process is for before I explain how it works. Our brains are filled with psychological “tools,” control- ling everything from emotion to reason to memory. Each of these tools helps us adapt and solve important problems. I’ll describe these tools in detail and show you how they’re used. We’ll also focus on the specific situations in which they are applied. Each chapter begins with a preview section just like this, called “Psychology for a Reason.” Here I explain how and why each psychological pro- cess is important—both in your everyday life and in your efforts to succeed as a student. To understand any psychological process completely, you first must have some idea of what the process is for.

Here are a few examples: Suppose you’re walking along a mountain trail and hear a sudden rattle. You stop quickly because that sound could signal the presence of a rattlesnake. One important thing you learn about your environ- ment is that certain events, such as rattling sounds, predict or signal other events, such as dangerous snakes. Our brains are designed to learn associa- tions between significant events so we can better adapt to our environment. In Chapter 7, we’ll discuss a procedure called classical conditioning that shows us how this important learning process works. Likewise, in Chapter 13 you’ll learn how we use psychological processes to interpret the behavior of others. If a shadowy figure emerges suddenly from an alleyway, it’s important that you size up the situation quickly and decide on an appropriate response. Is this per- son a threat or just having a little fun? For a broad overview of the types of situa- tions that we’ll be considering in this book, take a look at Table 1.1.

Psychologists use many tools to study mind and behavior.

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● tABLE 1.1 Examples of Functional Problems Considered in the Book

CHAPTER FunCTionAl PRoblEm ExAmPlE SoluTion ToolS

2 Determining the causes of behavior Sally watches a TV program and becomes aggressive.

Experimental research

3 Communicating internally A bicyclist weaves suddenly into the path of your car.

Electrochemical transmission in the nervous system

7 Learning what events signal You hear a rattling tail on a mountain path.

Associations acquired through classical conditioning

8 Remembering over the short term You try to remember a telephone number as you cross the room.

Rehearsal in short-term memory

10 Conceptualizing intelligence Andy is excellent at fixing mechanical devices but is terrible at reading and math.

Psychometric tests designed to measure the mind

13 Interpreting the behavior of others A shadowy figure emerges suddenly from an alleyway.

Knowledge-based social schemas used to predict outcomes

14 Defining abnormality Lucinda hears voices and thinks she’s immortal.

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

15 Treating the mind Ralph is mired in the depths of depression.

Psychoactive drug therapy or “insight” therapy

© Cengage Learning

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Defining and Describing Psychology | 5

In Chapter 2, our focus will be on the methods psychologists use to understand behavior and mind. In subsequent chapters, we will see how those methods are used to answer questions, such as: What are the best strategies for understanding the changes we go through from infancy to adulthood (Chapter 4)? What are the best ways to measure intelligence (Chapter 10)? How can abnormal behavior be treated (Chapter 15)? These are practical problems that psychologists face; and, again, the key to understanding the methods psychologists employ is to understand the specific problems that these methods are designed to solve.

About This Chapter This first chapter is designed simply to acquaint you with the scientific study of behavior and mind. Toward that end, our discussion will revolve around three basic questions:

Defining and Describing Psychology What is the proper way to define and describe psychology? We’ll talk about the distinction between behavior and mind and about what psychologists do.

Tracing the Development of Psychology: A Brief History How did current psychological perspectives evolve? Psychology has a short history as a science, but scholars have been interested in psychological questions for centuries. We’ll discuss some of the famous “schools” of psychological thought and how they developed.

Identifying the Focus of Modern Psychology What trends and directions are shaping modern psychology? We’ll characterize how modern psychologists think and some important recent influences. Increasingly, modern psychologists are con- cerned with cognitive, biological, evolutionary, and cultural factors in under- standing behavior and mind.

Defining and Describing Psychology LEARNING GOALS

● Understand the modern definition of psychology. ● Distinguish among clinical, applied, and research psychologists.

Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mind. The word comes from the Greek psyche, which translates as “soul” or “breath,” and logos, which means the study or investiga- tion of something (as in biology or physiology). The word psychology was not in common use before the 19th century, and the field of psychology didn’t become an independent sci- ence until the middle of the 19th century (Boring, 1950). Prior to that point, “the study of the mind,” as psychology was widely known, was conducted mainly by philosophers and physi- ologists. Neither Sigmund Freud nor Ivan Pavlov was trained in psychology, despite their reputations as famous psychologists. The field as we know it now simply didn’t exist.

psychology The scientific study of behavior and mind.

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6 | CHAPTER 1 An Introduction to Psychology

Notice that today’s definition of psychology is quite precise—it is not simply the study of the mind; rather, it is the scientific study of behavior and mind. The empha- sis on science, and particularly the scientific method, distinguishes psychology from the closely related field of philosophy. The essential characteristic of the scien- tific method, as you’ll see in Chapter 2, is observation: Scientific knowledge is always based on some kind of direct or indirect observation. Psychologists collect observations, look for regularities, and then generate predictions based on what they’ve observed.

By mind, psychologists mean the contents and processes of subjective experience: sensations, thoughts, and emotions. Behavior and mind are kept separate in the definition because only behavior can be directly measured. Psychologists use the term behavior in a quite general way. The activities of cells within the brain and even internal thoughts and feel- ings can be considered types of “behavior”—as long as they can be observed and measured in a systematic way.

What Psychologists Do The work of all psychologists revolves around the scientific study of behavior and mind, but specialties abound. As summarized in the Concept Review on page 8, we can divide the general job description into three main categories: clinical psy- chologists, applied psychologists, and research psychologists. These categories are some- what artificial—for example, clinical psychologists often work in applied settings and many conduct research—but the categories provide a useful way of defining the profession.

Clinical Psychologists A clinical psychologist diagnoses and treats psychological problems—such as depression, anxiety, phobias, and schizophrenia. Clinical psychologists typically work in clinics or in private practice, delivering human services such as psychotherapy or counseling. To become a clinical psychologist, it is necessary to obtain a postgradu- ate degree such as a Ph.D. (doctor of philosophy) or a Psy.D. (doctor of psychology).

Counseling psychologists also deliver human services, but they usually work on different kinds of problems. Counseling psychologists are more likely to deal with adjustment problems (marriage and family problems), whereas clinical psycholo- gists tend to work with psychological disorders. Counseling psychology also requires a postgradu- ate degree, perhaps a Ph.D. from a graduate pro- gram specializing in counseling psychology or an Ed.D. (doctor of education). Together, clinical and counseling psychologists make up the major- ity of the profession (American Psychological Association, 2002b).

mind The contents and processes of subjective experience: sensations, thoughts, and emotions.

behavior Observable actions such as moving about, talking, gesturing, and so on; behaviors can also refer to the activities of cells and to thoughts and feelings.

clinical psychologists Psychologists who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems.

Psychologists seek to understand how and why people act, think, and feel.

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The term behavior can mean many things to a psychologist—observable actions, thoughts and feelings (as revealed through written reports), and even electrical activity in the brain.

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Defining and Describing Psychology | 7

Many people confuse the terms psycholo- gist and psychiatrist. Psychiatrists also special- ize in the treatment of psychological problems, but psychiatrists are medical doctors. To become a psychiatrist you must graduate from medical school and complete further specialized train- ing in psychiatry. Like clinical psychologists, psychiatrists treat mental disorders, but, unlike most psychologists, they are licensed to prescribe medication.

As you’ll see in Chapter 15, medications are often useful in treating problems of the mind. Currently, there is an ongoing debate among mental health professionals about whether psy- chologists should be allowed to prescribe medi- cation (Fagan et al., 2007; McGrath, 2010). Some states are considering legislation that will extend prescription privileges to licensed clinical psy- chologists; New Mexico and Louisiana, as well as the U.S. territory of Guam, have passed legis- lation giving properly trained psychologists the right to prescribe drugs. At present, though, psy- chologists and medical doctors typically work together. A clinical psychologist is likely to refer a client to a psychiatrist or general practitioner if he or she suspects that a physical problem might be involved.

Applied Psychologists Applied psychologists extend the principles of scientific psy- chology to practical, everyday problems in the real world. Applied psychologists work in many settings. School psychologists work with students in primary and secondary schools to help them perform well academically and socially. Industrial/organizational psychologists are employed in industry to help improve morale, train new recruits, or help managers establish effective lines of communication with their employees. Forensic psychologists apply psychological principles to legal issues, such as the reli- ability of eyewitness testimony or the evaluation of a defendant’s mental compe- tence. Human factors psychologists play a key role in the design and engineering of new products: For example, why do you think telephone numbers are seven digits long, grouped in three, then four (e.g., 555-9378)? How about traffic lights—why red and green? You’ll find answers to these questions later in the book.

Human factors psychologists even work on the design of the kitchen stove. Does your stove look like the one shown in the left panel of ●Figure 1.1? There are four burners, arranged in a rectangle, and four control knobs that line up horizontally along the front (or sometimes the back). To use the stove properly, you need to learn the relationship, or what psychologists call the mapping, between the control knobs and the burners. In this case, you need to learn that the far left knob controls the back burner on the left. Or is it the front burner on the left? If you have a stove like

psychiatrists Medical doctors who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems.

applied psychologists Psychologists who extend the principles of scientific psychology to practical problems in the world.

A clinical psychologist diagnoses and treats psychological problems. Clinical psychologists typically work in clinics or in private practice, delivering human services such as psychotherapy or counseling.

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● FiGuRE 1.1 the Human Factors of Stove Design The stove on the left does not provide a natural mapping between the control knobs and the burners and is therefore difficult to use. The stoves in the middle and on the right provide psychologically correct designs that reduce user errors. (© Cengage Learning)

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8 | CHAPTER 1 An Introduction to Psychology

this one, which is badly designed from a psychological perspective, you likely have trouble remembering which knob controls which burner. I bet you’ve placed a pot of water on one of the burners, turned a control knob, and found moments later that you’ve turned on the wrong burner…right? The reason is simple: The stove has been designed with an unnatural mapping between its controls and the burners.

Mapping is easier to understand when you look at a psychologically correct design, as shown in the middle panel of Figure 1.1. Notice that the arrangement of the burners naturally aligns with the controls. The left-to-right display of the con- trol knobs matches the left-to-right arrangement of the burners. There is no need to learn the mapping in this case. It’s obvious which knob you would use to turn on the appropriate burner. Alternatively, if you want to keep the rectangular arrangement of the stove top, then simply arrange the control knobs in a rectangular manner that matches the burners, as shown in the far right panel. As these examples illustrate, there are natural and unnatural ways to express the relationship between product control and product function.

We’ll be considering the work of applied psychologists throughout this book. Applied psychologists usually have a postgraduate degree, often a Ph.D., although a master’s in psychology can be sufficient for a successful career in an industrial setting.

Research Psychologists Some psychologists conduct basic research to discover the principles of behavior and mind. They are called research psychologists, and, like applied psychologists, they usually specialize. Behavioral neuroscientists seek to under- stand how biological or genetic factors influence and determine behavior. Personality psychologists are concerned with the internal factors that lead people to act consis- tently across situations and also with how people differ. Cognitive psychologists focus on higher mental processes such as memory, learning, and reasoning. Developmental psychologists study how behavior and internal mental processes change over the course of the life span. Social psychologists are interested in how people think about, influence, and relate to each other. You’ll be reading about the work of research psy- chologists in every chapter of this book. Sometimes research psychologists work on problems of special interest to education—for an example, read the Practical Solutions feature.

research psychologists Psychologists who try to discover the basic principles of behavior and mind.

● CONCEPt REviEw Types of Psychologists TYPE oF PSYCHoloGiST GuiDinG FoCuS PRimARY WoRKPlACE ExAmPlES oF WHAT THEY Do

Clinical psychologists The diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems

Clinics

Private practice

Academic settings

Counsel clients suffering from adjustment prob- lems or more severe psychological problems; evaluate diagnostic techniques and therapy effectiveness

Applied psychologists Extending psychological principles to practical problems in the world

Private industry

Schools

Academic settings

Help performance of students in school; improve employee morale and performance at work; design computers so that humans can use them efficiently

Research psychologists Conduct research to discover the basic principles of behavior and mind

Academic settings

Private industry

Conduct experiments on the best study method for improving memory; assess the impact of day care on children’s attachment to their parents; observe the effects of others on a person’s help- ing behavior

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Defining and Describing Psychology | 9

We’ve seen that psychologists work on many different kinds of questions, but you’re prob- ably more interested in what they have to say about doing well in school. Have psycholo- gists discovered the secret to understanding and remembering classroom material, or the subjects covered in your textbook? In fact, psy- chologists have a lot to say about successful learning and retention and what they’ve discov- ered flies in the face of conventional wisdom.

The Myth: Repeated Reading Suppose we conducted a simple experi-

ment. Two groups of students are asked to read and remember a section of material from a college textbook. One group is given four separate opportunities during which they’re allowed to read over the material and try to remember it. The other group is shown the material only once, but is required to recall what they studied on three consecutive tests. Two weeks later everyone is asked to remem- ber the material on a final test. Who does better—the group receiving four opportunities to read and reread the material or the group

taking three tests? If you are like most people, you picked the read and reread group—after all, they’re given four chances to go over the material. But if you did, you would be wrong, very wrong. In fact, the group given the three tests does substantially better. Not only does repeated testing lead to better memory for the original material, it leads to better compre- hension as well (Karpicke & Roedgier, 2008; Karpicke & Blunt, 2011).

The Fact: Repeated Testing The key to effective studying is really

effective testing. You need to practice retrieving the information, not simply read the material over and over again. In fact, repeated reading does very little to enhance either comprehension or later memory. Unfortunately, students rarely engage in repeated self-testing; their preferred tech- nique is repeated studying, in the form of rereading or rewriting material from the book or notes. You will learn about why repeated retrieval is so effective later in Chapter 8, but consider the following example: Suppose you

were trying to learn to play a piece of music on the piano. Which would be better—reading the sheet music over and over again or actu- ally playing the piece on the piano? If the goal is to play the piano, you need to practice play- ing the piano. Likewise, if you want to remem- ber something later on, you need to practice remembering it, not staring at it for hours.

Be Accurate One final warning: Practicing retrieval

through self-testing is a terrific way to study and learn material in a course. But it’s very important that you practice retrieving the right information. If you test yourself and recall the wrong information, you could be in a lot of trouble. That means it’s important to check your work. What you retrieve needs to be accurate or you will “remember” the wrong thing. To make matters worse, many students tend to be overconfident about what they know—they are very poor at monitoring their learning effectively—and this leads to very poor retention and comprehension in the long term (Dunlosky & Rawson, 2011).

● PRACtiCAL SOLutiONS Want to Do Well on the Test? Test Yourself!

Monitor Your Learning The key to effective studying is really effective self-testing. First, test yourself by recalling the key points and terms from the preceding section—with the book closed! Next, monitor your learning by checking the accuracy of your responses. You must check carefully—and don’t be overconfident. Overconfidence can lead to understudying. Finally, close the book and recall the key points and terms again, this time correcting any mistakes you made the first time. Later, before the next class exam, repeat the Recall-Monitor-Recall process. Reading is not enough—you must retrieve!

test Yourself You can also test your knowledge about how best to define and describe psychology by deciding whether each of the following statements is true or false. (You will find the answers in the Appendix.)

1. Psychologists use the term behavior to refer only to observable responses, such as moving about, talking, and gesturing. Internal events, such as thoughts and feelings, fall outside the domain of scientific psychology. True or False?

2. Psychology did not exist as a separate field of science 150 years ago. To explore questions about behavior and mind, it was nec- essary to study philosophy and physiology. True or False?

3. Clinical psychologists are generally interested in diagnosing and treating psychological problems such as depression or schizophre- nia. True or False?

4. Psychiatrists differ from psychologists primarily in their focus of interest. Psychiatrists tend to work on severe and chronic prob- lems, such as schizophrenia, whereas psychologists treat milder problems, such as phobias and anxiety disorders. True or False?

● Recall-Monitor-Recall 1.1

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10 | CHAPTER 1 An Introduction to Psychology

Tracing the Development of Psychology: A Brief History LEARNING GOALS

● Understand what is meant by the mind–body problem. ● Contrast the different viewpoints on the origins of knowledge. ● Trace the development of the first scientific schools of psychology. ● Note the early clinical contributions of Freud and the humanists. ● Highlight the contributions of women to the development of psychology as a field.

The field of psychology has a relatively short past, but it has a long and distinguished intel- lectual history. Thousands of years ago, the Greek philosopher Aristotle (384–322 b.c.) wrote extensively on topics that are central to modern psychology— topics such as memory, sleep, and sensation. It was Aristotle who first argued that the mind is a kind of tabula rasa—a blank tablet—on which experiences are written. The idea that knowledge arises directly from experience, a philosophical position known as empiricism, continues to be an important theme in modern psychological thought.

Modern psychology developed out of the disciplines of philosophy and physiol- ogy. In a sense, psychology has always occupied a kind of middle ground between the two. Aristotle, Plato, and other philosophers helped frame many of the basic ques- tions that occupy the attention of psychologists today: Where does knowledge come from? What are the laws, if any, that govern sensation? What are the necessary condi- tions for learning and remembering? Physiologists, on the other hand, focused their attention on the workings of the human body. Before psychology was formally estab- lished, physiologists collected volumes of data on the mechanics of physical move- ment and the anatomy of sensory systems, which proved essential in the development of a scientific understanding of behavior and mind.

Mind and Body: Are They the Same? What exactly is the relationship between the physical body, as studied by physiologists, and the mind, as studied by philosophers? Are the mind and body separate and dis- tinct, or are they one and the same? In the 17th century, the French philosopher René Descartes (1596–1650) argued that the mind and body are separate: The physical body, he claimed, cannot think, nor is it possible to explain thinking by appealing to physical matter. He did allow for the possibility that one could have an important influence on the other. He believed the mind controlled the actions of a mechanical body through the pineal gland, a small structure at the base of the brain (see ●Figure 1.2). He was never clear about the details.

Descartes offered some ingenious descriptions of the human body, and he influ- enced generations of physiologists. His specific ideas about the body turned out to be largely incorrect—the pineal gland, for example, plays a role in producing hor- mones, not muscle movements—but a few of his ideas remain influential today. It was Descartes who first introduced the concept of a reflex. Reflexes are automatic, involuntary reactions of the body to events in the environment (such as pulling your hand away from the hot burner on a stove). As you’ll see in Chapter 3, reflexes play a very important role in our survival. But Descartes did little to advance the scientific study of the mind. To separate the mind from the physical world places psychology outside the boundaries of science. The scientific method is based on observation, and it’s impossible to study something scientifically that cannot be observed in some way.

Today, most psychologists approach the mind–body problem quite differently. They reject the separation of mind and body and assume they’re one and the same. What we call the “mind” today is really nothing more than brain activity; put simply,

empiricism The idea that knowledge comes directly from experience.

CRitiCAL tHiNkiNG

Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mind. Is it really surprising then that its intellectual roots lie in physiology and philosophy?

● FiGuRE 1.2 Descartes and the Reflex René Descartes introduced the concept of the reflex, which he described as an automatic, involuntary reaction of a physical body to an event in the outside world. He thought the mediating structure was the pineal gland, shown here as a tear-shaped area at the back of the head. (© Cengage Learning)

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Tracing the Development of Psychology: A Brief History | 11

the mind is what the brain does (Pinker, 1997). As you’ll see, there is an extremely close link between the operation of the brain and behavior. Many psychological disorders come directly from problems in the brain, and many of the symptoms can be treated effectively through biological means (usually medication). Exactly how we infer mental “states” and processes from the study of brain action remains a tricky problem (Barrett, 2009), but it’s a problem that most psychologists believe will ultimately be solved.

Nature and Nurture: Where Does Knowledge Come From? Philosophers and psychologists have always been interested in determining where knowledge comes from. Aristotle adopted an empiricist position: He believed that knowledge comes directly from our day-to-day experiences. Empiricism can be contrasted with a philosophical position called nativism, which holds that certain kinds of knowledge and ideas are inborn, or innate.

The Nativist Argument Nativists believe we arrive in the world knowing certain things. The German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) proposed that humans are born with a certain mental “structure” that determines how they perceive the world. People, he argued, are born with a natural tendency to see things in terms of cause and effect and to interpret the world in terms of space and time. Of course, it would be silly to claim that all knowledge is present at birth—we certainly learn lots of things—but some kinds of knowledge, the nativists argue, do not depend on experience.

The question of whether humans are born knowing fundamental things about their world is difficult to answer. For one thing, no one is really sure at what point experience begins. We could draw a line at birth and say that any knowledge or abili- ties that exist at that very moment are innate, but, as you’ll see in Chapter 4, the environment exerts tremendous influences on embryos as they develop in the womb. We can never eliminate the influence of experience completely, so we’re always faced with the tricky problem of disentangling which portions of the knowledge we observe are inborn and which are produced by experience.

It is possible to demonstrate that people use certain organizing principles of per- ception that cannot be altered by experience. Take a look at ●Figure 1.3. If I showed you (a) and then (b), do you think you could easily recognize that (a) is in fact embed- ded in (b)? It’s not easy to see, is it? More important, it doesn’t really matter how many times I show you (a). Even if I force you to look at (a) one hundred times, it’s always going to be difficult to find when you look at (b). The reason for this, according to a movement called Gestalt psychology, is that humans are born with a certain fixed way of viewing the world. The visual system naturally organizes the sensory input in (b) in such a way that (a) is hard to see. These organizing principles are innate, and experience cannot change them (Ellis, 1938). I’ll have more to say about organizing principles of perception, and about Gestalt psychology, when we take up the topics of sensation and perception in Chapter 5.