Leadership

If  you were a supervisor in a large corporation and you have just selected  eight of your employees to sit on a team to propose a new procedure for  the production line, what steps would you, as team leader, take to help  increase the team’s effectiveness. 

Instructions: Your initial post should be at least 250 words, not including repeated questions, references and quotes.  

organizational groups withdiffering levels of support. The questionbecomes: to what degree does a leader purposefullycreate opportunities for highquality relationships based on subordinates’ desires, potential, and competence versus as a functionof social stratification? Table 6.1 identifies additional strengths and weaknesses.

TABLE6.1 Strengths and weaknesses ofLMX

Strengths Weaknesses

Recognizes and increases the importance of dyadic relationships in the process of leadership

Realisticallyassesses the influence of social stratification inorganizations and states the importance of equitable opportunities to develop highquality relationships based on competence

Extensive empirical researchestablishes the validityof the theoryand the positive impact ofhighquality relationships on leadership outcomes

Insufficient attention toward movement betweenphases of the leadership makingprocess and how leaders cultivate mature, highquality relationships with followers

Researchoveremphasizes hierarchical and authoritative relationships with little focus onother types of relationships (e.g., peer, crossunit) that exist inorganizations

Left unquestioned the roles of similarity and affinitycreate potential for inequitable approaches to leadership reinforcingdominant narratives

Making Connections

LMXdoes not hide how it cancontribute to social stratification. How might organizational ideologies exacerbate the creationand maintenance of inequitable in and outgroups?

What stands out as useful aboutLMX? Whatdo you thinkneeds to be addressed in the deconstructionand reconstructionprocesses?

TEAM LEADERSHIP The studyof small group dynamics and how teams function is the source of abundant research and theorizingacross a wide range ofdisciplines, fromindustrial psychology to communications. Its purposeful connection to leadership, however, was largely implicit until more recently. Increased attention is drivenat least inpart by the critical role teams now play in the workforce as a necessaryvehicle for accomplishingcomplexgoals. Although there is no universal conceptualizationof teamleadership, a strongbasis of theorizingexists fromwhich

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to examine commonthemes.

Overview Burke et al. (2006) argued that “at its most basic level, ‘team’ leadership is aboutwhat the leader or leaders do to facilitate teamperformance” (p. 303). It represents a shift awayfrom solelyexamining linkages between leaders and subordinates and toward interactions between leaders and teams as well as the ways inwhich teams canbe afforded greater agencyfor their collective work. Before we go deeper withour understandingof teamleadership, let’s make sure we have a commonunderstandingofkeyconcepts associated with it.

What exactlydo we meanwhenwe use the term team? Teams are defined as anygroupingof two or more people withspecificallydefined roles, engaging in interdependentwork to advance a set of shared goals (Salas, Goodwin, &Burke, 2009;Shuffler, Burke, Kramer, & Salas, 2013;Yukl, 2013). Teams canbe further subdivided into varying types based onhow authority influences the group’s structure (e.g., selectionofmembers, distributionof resources) and functioning (Hackman, 2002). Table 6.2 provides anoverview of the keyfeatures of four different types of teams. Additionally, teamwork is the process of enactingcollective team knowledge, skills, and abilities inservice of a group’s shared goals and differs fromtaskwork, which reflects capacities individuals need to complete responsibilities on their own(Marks, Mathieu, &Zaccaro, 2001;Salas, Rosen, Burke, &Goodwin, 2009). Thus, teamworkrequires both individual taskcapacities and competencies related to social group functioning.

TABLE6.2 Keyfeatures ofdifferent types of teams

Team Type

Locus of Authority

Role of TeamMembers Process Orientation

Influences on Structure

Manager Led

Formal leader Execute tasks Tight control by leader

Determined by authority

Self Managing

Teammembers with formal leader oversight

Execute tasks, make decisions, and monitor performance

Managed by team members

Determined by authority

Self Designing

Teammembers with limited oversight

Execute tasks, make decisions, and monitor performance

Managed by team members

Teammembers influence all but purpose ofgroup

Self Governing

Teammembers Execute tasks, make decisions, and monitor performance

Managed by team members

Teammembers influence all aspects

Now thatwe have greater clarityaboutwhat teams are, let’s turnour focus back to team leadership. Teamleadership relies on the functional leadership perspective, whichemphasizes that the role of leadership is “to do, or get done, whatever is not beingadequatelyhandled for group needs” (McGrath, 1962, p. 5). According to this perspective, a leader is any individual

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working toward goal accomplishment and satisfactionofgroup needs, not just a formal leader holdingauthority (Morgeson, DeRue, &Karam, 2010;Shuffler et al., 2013;Wageman& Fisher, 2014;Zaccaro, Heinen, &Shuffler, 2009). Therefore, the focus is on leadership versus leaders acknowledging thatmultiple individuals mayshift inand out of leader roles as a team works toward goal achievement. This is not, however, a rebuttal of formal leaders or authority. Indeed, teamleadership inorganizational practice most often takes the formof selfmanaged teams, withsome level of formal authorityor oversight (Wageman&Fisher, 2014). Thus, team leadership asks us to hold constant the seeminglycontradictory ideas that (1) leaders exist both informallyand formally in teams, and (2) leaders may influence teams either fromwithin the teamitself or fromthe external environment. Zaccaro, Rittman, and Marks (2001) pointed to the distinctiveness of the functional perspective as it defines teamleadership “as social problemsolving, where leaders are responsible for (a) diagnosinganyproblems that could potentially impede group and organizational goal attainment, (b) generatingand planningappropriate solutions, and (c) implementingsolutions within typicallycomplexsocial domains” (p. 454). Theygo on to share that this uniqueness stems fromat least three considerations. First, an important role of leaders becomes boundary spanning, which involves servingas a bridge to the external environment. The leader interprets and communicates to the teamexternal factors thatmight influence the social problemsolvingprocess. Second, if teamleadership serves the functionofproblemsolving, then those in formal leader positions must discernwhenand how to intervene in the team process. For example, whenproblems have relativelyclear solutions that a teamcannegotiate collectivelywithminimal influence fromexternal factors, there is less need for a formal leader to intervene. Finally, the functional perspective of teamleadership is unique as it is does not attempt to determine a full range ofbehavioral styles that should be enacted for effectiveness. Thus, the practice of teamleadership may involve the use ofbehavioral styles discussed in previous chapters (e.g., task, relational), more empoweringstyles thatwill be covered in future chapters (e.g., transformational, instrumental), or anycombinationofpertinent behaviors. This gives greater freedomto leaders to engage in teamleadership usinga variety of approaches givenconditions vary fromcontext to context, task to task, and teamto team.

Applying the Concept Whether a leader is a formal authorityor member actingas an informal leader within the group, creating“effective leadership processes represent perhaps the most critical factor in the success oforganizational teams” (Zaccaro et al., 2001, p. 452). This requires providing considerable attentionand resources to the collective while not losingsite of individual needs along the way(Burke et al., 2006;Hackman&Walton, 1986;Morgesonet al., 2010;Shuffler et al., 2013). Integrating the mountainof literature on teams ingeneral into a cohesive perspective onhow best to do this is no small feat.

Anumber of scholars offer models operationalizing teamleadership (Burke et al., 2006; Kogler Hill, 2016;Kozlowski, Watola, Jensen, Kim, &Botero, 2009;Morgesonet al., 2010; Zaccaro et al., 2001, 2009). Figure 6.2 provides anadapted conceptual model drawingheavily onZaccaro et al.’s (2009) workas well as keyelements fromother models. This adaptation

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consists of teamleader functions, teaminteractiondynamics, teamwork, considerations associated with time, and leadership outcomes (whichare discussed in the next section).

FIGURE6.2 Adapted conceptual model of teamleadership

Team Leader Functions There is extensive scholarship examining the functions that formal or informal teamleaders should engage in to increase the likelihood that teamleadership will emerge and contribute to group effectiveness (Burke et al., 2006;Fleishmanet al., 1992;Hackman, 2002;Hackman& Walton, 1986;Kogler Hill, 2016;Kozlowski et al., 2009;Zaccaro et al., 2001, 2009). This scholarship converges around the four functions ofplanning, organizing, monitoring, and acting. Zaccaro et al. (2009) narrowed these further to three keyfunctions:

Setting Direction

The directionsetting functionsets the stage for teamprocesses drawingheavilyona leader’s responsibility for boundaryspanning. Recall that this involves the process of analyzing the external environment inwhich the teamis nested to gather information regardingpotential influences on teamprocesses and desired outcomes. It also includes developinga deep awareness of the team, its dynamics, and capacities. As a leader makes meaningof the informationgained throughboundaryspanning, it serves as crucial data for teamplanningand action. Leaders must also engage in sensegiving, or translating this information to the teamand helping themto see and understand external influences as well as how they influence collective actions.

Managing Operations

Managingoperations serves as a coordinating function inwhicha leader supports the Dugan, J. P. (2017). <i>Leadership theory</i>. Retrieved from http://ebookcentral.proquest.com Created from apus on 2017-06-23 08:23:10.

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actions of the group as theyengage in leadership. This requires keendiscernment about when to intervene versus share informationversus allow the teamto act independently. Of primary importance is providinga foundation that supports the ongoingcreation, re examination, and upholdingofgroup norms, particularlyaround expectations and communicationdynamics. Managingoperations also includes a wide arrayofbehaviors that canvarybased on the nature of the team, its primary tasks, and its context. These include, but are not limited to, selecting teammembers, aligning teammember capacities with task requirements, monitoringactions and providing feedback, acquiring resources for the team, and representing the teamto external constituencies.

Developing the Team’s Capacity forSelfManagement

Akeyfunctionof anyformal or informal leader is to increase the capacityofmembers of the teamto engage in these three functions on their own. This distributes the essential leader functions across a wider group ofpeople. Whena teamdoes have a formal leader, this provides that personwithmore time to engage inboundaryspanningefforts, acquisitionof resources, and learningnecessary to respond to crises or unique issues that mayarise. Developinga team’s capacity for selfmanagement typically involves coaching efforts that focus onenhancingmotivationand commitment to the group and its goals, fostering innovation, and investing in the developmentofmembers’ leadership capacities. The overarchinggoal, then, is to increase the efficacyand capacity for autonomy, self direction, and selfmanagement.

Team Interaction Dynamics Teamleader functions directly influence teaminteractiondynamics shapinghow the team functions. Interactiondynamics in turnplayan important role inshapinghow effective a team is inmeeting leadership outcomes as well as the degree to which teamworkemerges. Zaccaro et al. (2009) emphasized three specific elements of teaminteractiondynamics, eachofwhich influence one another. Key to understanding this is the recognition that eachof its three elements reflects collective teamperspectives that exist either consciouslyor subconsciously and informhow the teamoperates rather thancharacteristics of individuals within the team. Teaminteractiondynamics include the following:

TeamFormation

Just because a group is referred to as a teamdoes notmean that it operates as one. The developmentof a cohesive sense of teamis formed over time through interactiondynamics. Tuckman’s (1965) classic model ofgroup development suggested a process ofmovement throughpredictable stages (e.g., forming, storming, norming, and performing) that shift the group’s focus fromindividual goals, values, and needs to collective ones. Other scholars suggest the process is more complicated and less linear (Salas et al., 2009) but concur that the developmental formationof the teaminfluences goal processes and emergent states and is influenced by theminreturn.

GoalProcesses

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Goal processes reflect the ways inwhich teams workcollectivelyand interdependently to achieve outcomes. Marks et al. (2001) differentiated between transition processes in which the teamengages in reflectionand planningand action processes inwhich they activelywork toward goals. Providinga foundation for bothof these are interpersonal processes that involve navigatingand negotiating teamrelationships. Eachof the processes is associated withspecific teambehaviors. For example, key to transitionprocesses are collective goal specificationand planning, while key to actionprocesses are collective performance monitoringand synchronizationof activities. Examples of interpersonal processes include collective negotiationof conflict. Additionally, progress toward goals is not linear but episodic, withprevious experiences often influencing future directions. Givenmost teams work toward multiple goals simultaneously, a teammayexperience actionand transitionphases concurrently.

Emergent States

Emergent states are characteristics of the group that surface through interactiondynamics, becomingproperties of the teamthat canbe leveraged inservice ofgoals. As a teamworks together, enhanced cognitive states (i.e., mental models or understandings of the team, its purpose, norms, and goals) emerge. Motivational states include the developmentof greater teamcohesion, group trust, and collective efficacy. Affective states reflect the collective emotional wellbeingof the group. Eachof the emergent states is drivenby goal processes and teamformation, and influences theminreturn.

Teamwork Teamworkreflects the enactmentof teamknowledge, attitudes, and skills. It is the leveraging of collective assets inservice of teamgoals. There are direct and reciprocal relationships between leadership functions, interactiondynamics, and teamwork. Inother words, eachof the constructs influences one another. As one increases, so may the other and, similarly, as one falters, so may the other. Additionally, outcome achievement influences teamworkwith positive results contributing to important gains in teamefficacyand learning.

Time Afinal consideration in the adapted model of teamleadership is the representationof time. As noted in the previous sections, initial conceptualizations of elements suchas teamformation and group processes suggested linear understandings inwhich teams marched continuously forward. There is now, however, a recognition that aspects of teamleadership canoccur simultaneously, reflect regressions inprogress, or involve revisitingpreviously resolved elements. The influence of time is illustrated inFigure 6.2 via the arrow, with the loops conveying its nonlinear nature and the complexityof its impact on teamleadership.

How Research Evolves the Concept Despite the volume of researchon teams ingeneral, a great deal remains unknownabout team leadership (Shuffler et al., 2013). Empirical researchhas contributed directly to the conceptual

Dugan, J. P. (2017). <i>Leadership theory</i>. Retrieved from http://ebookcentral.proquest.com Created from apus on 2017-06-23 08:23:10.

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model of teamleadership presented in this chapter, withstudies validatingcomponent parts as well as establishing links betweenvarious elements. Separate lines of inquiryalso explore unique considerations associated with the applicationof teamleadership withvirtual teams consistingofmembers reliant on technology to engage across vast geographical distances as well as crosscultural teams based onglobal cultural differences. Both lines of inquirystress the importance of formal leaders inprovidingstructure, establishingnorms, and emphasizing effective communication.

As is the case withmost leadership theories, initial researchon teamleadership focused on establishingconnections to leadership outcomes. However, manyof these studies defaulted to the examinationof a narrow set ofbehaviors established inprior theories rather than examining the unique effects associated with teamleader functions, teaminteractiondynamics, and teamwork. Results do establish that the enactmentofdifferent types of leadership behaviors (e.g., task, relational, transformational) contribute to positive teamdynamics as well as leadership outcomes suchas teamperformance, productivity, and learning (Bass, Avolio, Jung, &Berson, 2003;Burke et al., 2006;Purvanova &Bono, 2009;Wu, Tsui, &Kinicki, 2010). Although this research is important, remember that one of the core tenets of team leadership is that there should be no universal set of leadership behaviors.

Finally, muchof teamleadership is predicated on the “turningover” of leadership responsibilities froma formal, authoritative leader to the teamitself by increasing the team’s capacity for selfmanagement. This is a keygoal of teamleader functions, and research largelydemonstrates thatwhenformal leaders engage in this, the result is a positive effect on the team’s sense of empowerment and capacity for selfmanagement (Maynard, Gilson, & Mathieu, 2012;Maynard, Mathieu, Gilson, O’Boyle, &Cigularov, 2013). However, two studies found that formal leaders’ use of teamleader functions did not contribute to team empowermentwhen the organizational climate acted insupportive ways and teamcoaches (i.e., outside facilitators who support teamempowermentbut are disconnected fromthe authority structure) were employed (Mathieu&Taylor, 2006;Rapp, Gilson, Mathieu, &Ruddy 2016). Inother words, teams did develop empoweringbehaviors associated withself management, but the source of this was not their formal leader.

WrapUp Teamleadership shifts the focus ofgroupcentered leadership theories fromgroups as a by product ofmultiple varying relationships witha formal leader to beingpurposefullycreated to better achieve organizational goals. The vast amountof researchand theorizingon teams and teamwork ingeneral is making its way into the literature on teamleadership, althoughno universal agreement exists amongscholars on its conceptualization. Table 6.3 offers additional strengths and weaknesses.

Dugan, J. P. (2017). <i>Leadership theory</i>. Retrieved from http://ebookcentral.proquest.com Created from apus on 2017-06-23 08:23:10.

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TABLE6.3 Strengths and weaknesses of teamleadership

Strengths Weaknesses

Allows for greater participatory involvementof everyone involved in leadership

States the importance of investing inboth individual teammembers’ development and collective development

Frames the enactmentof leader behaviors broadly, allowingfor a wide range of approaches rather thanprescriptions

Typically remains reliant ona formal authorityeither inside or outside of the team

Researchonoutcomes largely replicates those inother research rather than examiningunique contributions

Offers little attention to how teamnorms mayreflect and reinforce dominant stocks ofknowledge and ideologies

Making Connections

Consider past teamexperiences you’ve had. How did a formal leader withoversight for the teamreduce dependencyand create agencyfor the group? To what extent does teamleadership address how to diminishdominant ideologies thatmayreinforce leadercentricity?

What stands out as useful about teamleadership? Whatdo you thinkneeds to be addressed in the deconstructionand reconstructionprocesses?

SHARED LEADERSHIP Nearlyeverypublicationonshared leadership begins bypositioning it as a necessary response to globalization, specializationofworkers, and technological advances that require collaborationacross great distances—all ofwhichcreate compellingchallenges that demand decentralized approaches to group leadership. Sometimes referred to as distributive leadership, shared leadership differs fromteamleadership in its shift awayfroma singular leader attempting to shepherd group effectiveness and toward the simultaneous emergence of multiple leaders ina group process. The importance of shared leadership in the broader leadership landscape is perhaps best evidenced by its applicationacross a varietyof fields, rangingfromhumanresources and sales to nursingand education.

Overview Shared leadership is defined byPearce and Conger (2003) as “a dynamic, interactive influence process among individuals ingroups for which the objective is to lead one another to the achievementofgroup or organizational goals” (p. 1). Its keydistinguishing feature, then, is the

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