Background for Both:

Journal Articles and Websites: Journal articles can be found in the Trident Online Library. Book chapters are located in the same library, but you must click on “Additional Library Resources” and then search the eBook Academic Collection (EBSCO)

Airbnb’s Nathan Blecharczyk on being the only engineer for the first year/ Founder stories. (2013). YouTube Video. Retrieved from

Boaz, N., & Fox, E.A. (2014). Change leader, change thyself. McKinsey & Company – Insight Publications. Retrieved from

Caldwell, R. (2012). Leadership and learning: A critical reexamination of Senge’s learning organization. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 25(1), 39-55.

Cardenas, J., & Crabtree, G. (2009). Making time for visionary leadership. College and University, 84(3), 59-63. 

Cultural competence. (2013). Global Pathways. Retrieved from

Hofstede, G. (1993). Cultural constraints in management theories. Academy of Management Executive, 7(1), 81-94.

Hofstede’s cultural dimensions. (2016). Mind Tools. Retrieved from

Organizational change: Open Systems. Retrieved from

The 100 Most Influential People (2016). TIME. Retrieved from

Optional Readings and References

Appelbaum, S., Bartolomucci, N., Beaumier, E., Boulanger, J. & et al. (2004). Organizational citizenship behavior: A case study of culture, leadership and trust. Management Decision, 42(1/2), 13-43.

Blain, J. (2006) Visionary Leadership. YouTube Video: Retrieved from

Casimir, G., & Waldman, D. A. (2007). A cross cultural comparison of the importance of leadership traits for effective low-level and high-level leaders: Australia and China. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 7(1), 47-61.

Conceicao, S. C., & Altman, B. A. (2011). Training and development process and organizational culture change. Organization Development Journal, 29(1), 33-44.

Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing culture: The Hofstede model in context. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1), 1-26. Retrieved from

Kaifi, B. A., & Mujtaba, B. G. (2010). Transformational leadership of Afghans and Americans: A study of culture, age and gender. Journal of Service Science and Management, 3(1), 150-159.

Waldman, D. A., Luque, M. S., Washburn, N., House, R. J. & et al. (2006). Cultural and leadership predictors of corporate social responsibility values of top management: A globe study of 15 countries. Journal of International Business Studies, 37(6), 823-837.

Paper 1:


5-6 Pages

Leaders of today can be categorized by their various leadership styles, but all successful leaders have one thing in common: they are visionaries. For example, Presidents Bill Clinton, John Kennedy, and Ronald Reagan; high-tech giants Steve Jobs and Bill Gates; and world figures such as Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King all had visions far larger than themselves and the role they played.  For example, Gandhi is single-handedly responsible for returning India to home-rule after centuries of being ruled by Great Britain. Martin Luther King is considered to be the father of the civil rights movement in the United States. Bill Gates and Steve Jobs revolutionized the technology industry with their MS-DOS and Windows software, and the iPhone, respectively. 

Each of these leaders constructed a vision that was creative, clear, and concise, and that also complemented the organization’s culture and strategy. They all possessed the foresight to plan strategically for potential opportunities and threats, and once they constructed their vision, they were able to influence people, implement policies and procedures, and execute on the vision (i.e., turn that vision into action). 

One key thing with visionary leaders is that they are the creative geniuses behind the vision, and nearly all of them lead by example.  Which brings us to the next point: Microsoft certainly isn’t the company that it was after Bill Gates stepped down – will that same fate happen with Apple now that Steve Jobs is no longer running the company?

Required Reading

Please review The 100 most influential people according to TIME. To see the full list, click on “Full List” on the top banner, or choose from one of the selected lists such as “Pioneers”, “Titans” or “Leaders”. The 100 Most Influential People (2016). TIME. Retrieved from

Case Assignment

Select a leader from the TIME list who you consider to be an outstanding example of visionary leadership. The descriptions are short, so you may need to look at several before you find the person you want.

Conduct some additional research on this person. Then write a 5- to 6-page paper where you:

Analyze your subject leader’s style and explain why this leader is a visionary.

Keys to the Assignment

The key aspects of this assignment that, at a minimum, should be covered in your paper include:

· Why do you characterize this individual as visionary? Give specific examples.

· Based upon your research, analyze the added value this visionary leader brings to their organization or field.

· Do you think visionary leaders are needed in every organization? Why or why not?

· What business or environmental conditions particularly call for visionary leadership? 

Paper 2


2-3 pages

The most well-known framework on cultural values was derived from a landmark study in the late 1960s and early 1970s by Geert Hofstede, who analyzed data from 88,000 IBM employees from 72 countries in 20 languages. His research showed that employees working in different countries tended to prioritize different values, and those values clustered into several distinct dimensions. Those dimensions began with just four categories, but have been expanded in recent years to include:

· individualism-collectivism

· power distance

· uncertainty avoidance

· masculinity-femininity

· short-term vs. long-term orientation (or pragmatic vs. normative) and most recently

· indulgence vs. restraint 

Required Reading

Begin the SLP by reading:

Hofstede, G. (1993). Cultural constraints in management theories. Academy of Management Executive, 7(1), 81-94.

Session Long Project

First, choose a country outside of the United States. Then, drawing on the material in the background readings and doing additional research, please prepare a paper that addresses how you would adapt your leadership approach to lead a group based upon Geert Hofstede’s six dimensions if you were the CEO of a multinational organization. For example, how would you adapt your behavior if it was an individualistic or collectivist environment? Would you implement a flat structure if it was a high or low power distance policy? What leadership style would be most appropriate for that culture? Make sure to address all six of Hofstede’s dimensions. Please be creative and provide examples to justify why you would make such decisions.

Your paper should be short (2-3 pages, not including the cover sheet and references) and to the point. You are expected to deal with these issues in an integrated fashion, rather than treating them as a series of individual questions to be answered one by one and left at that.