You have 12 hours & 40 minutes for this examination. This is an open-book exam with 15 questions. Please only do 14. Please write your responses in the spaces provided below the questions. 3-4 lines per answer.

1. Why was the GATT system described as the “third leg” of the post-war international economic system? What were the two other institutions?

2. What is meant by a rules-based trading system? What are the two main aspects or sides of the WTO system concerning trade rules?

3. What general principle underlies the “most-favored nation principle” and the “national treatment principle”? Please define these two principles.

4. What are three of the four “Singapore issues”? What three agreements were concluded at the Singapore Ministerial?

5. What is meant by the “multi-functionality of agriculture” and why do developing countries oppose it?

6. What does the U.S. International Trade Commission (ITC) and the International Trade Association(U.S. Dept. of Commerce) determine in antidumping and countervailing duty cases?

7. What is the difference between prohibited subsidies and actionable subsidies? What is the significance of theIllustrative List annexed to the Subsidies Code?

8. What do you need to establish in order to gain import relief as a safeguard measure? What is this relief intended to accomplish?

9. Who is bound by the recommendations of the Dispute Settlement Body (DSB)? What is the significance of the decisions of the Dispute Settlement Body on a country nota party to the decided case?

10. Under the Dispute Settlement Agreement what is meant by “compliance”? What should a state do if there is an issue concerning sufficiency of compliance? When may sanctions be authorized by the WTO?

11. What is the role of diplomacy in the WTO andwithin the dispute resolution system? Is the reliance on arules-based approach to trade relations and litigation negative or positive to governance of global trade relations today?

12. What agreements were principally involved in the U.S. – China Tires Case(AB 2011)? What was the political reasons behind the U.S. actions and what were the actual trade outcomes?

13. The United States has prevailed in two recent WTO actions against China concerning export of raw materials (AB 2012) and electronic payments / credit cards (Panel 2012). What WTO agreements were involved in these cases? What do these cases indicate about U.S. trade policy toward China during the Obama Administration?

14. In the context of exports what is the principal argument of those wanting China to appreciate its currency? What is the counter-argument against that position in terms of WTO obligations?

15. What are the principal arguments in favor and against a greater use of bilateral trade agreements and regional arrangements in light of the failure of DOHA?