Final Paper Outline And Annotated Bibliography

1) Outline: Your outline should be detailed enough to show the development of your topic,  including bullets for the introduction, supporting points for at least four body paragraphs of the paper, and your conclusion. Your proposed thesis statement should appear under the introduction heading. Your  outline should be approximately ½ to 1 page long in  outline format with headings and subheadings organized by body paragraphs that build on your thesis statement. It should not be written  in paragraph format. For information on how to create an effective  outline see the resources below:

Resources for outlines:

2) Annotated Bibliography: Then, in the same document as your outline, you should assemble an annotated bibliography.

Your annotated bibliography should include 4–6 sources, including at least 2 primary sources. These sources may include materials used in the course or in previous module papers. You may use The American Yawp, but it should not be divided up by chapter, it should be listed as one cohesive source.

For any outside sources, you can find scholarly secondary sources from the Excelsior College Library (Links to an external site.) or a primary source from the Excelsior College Library (Links to an external site.) or from this list of pre-approved primary source websites in US History (Links to an external site.). You should NOT use non-scholarly websites such as Wikipedia. If you have questions about finding appropriate sources, please contact your instructor.

Underneath each source, you should write a one-paragraph   (approximately 75-150 word) annotation entirely in your own words  summarizing the source’s content, evaluating it for credibility and usefulness in your paper, and comparing it with your other sources. 1) Outline: Your outline should be detailed enough to show the development of your topic, including bullets for the introduction, supporting points for at least four body paragraphs of the paper, and your conclusion. Your proposed thesis statement should appear under the introduction heading. Your outline should be approximately ½ to 1 page long in outline format with headings and subheadings organized by body paragraphs that build on your thesis statement. It should not be written in paragraph format. For information on how to create an effective outline, see the resources below: Resources for outlines:

2) Annotated Bibliography: Then, in the same document as your outline, you should assemble an annotated bibliography. Your annotated bibliography should include 4–6 sources, including at least 2 primary sources. These sources may include materials used in the course or in previous module papers. You may use The American Yawp, but it should not be divided up by chapter, it should be listed as one cohesive source. For any outside sources, you can find scholarly secondary sources from the Excelsior College Library (Links to an external site.) or a primary source from the Excelsior College Library (Links to an external site.) or from this list of pre-approved primary source websites in US History (Links to an external site.). You should NOT use non-scholarly websites such as Wikipedia. If you have questions about finding appropriate sources, please contact your instructor. Underneath each source, you should write a one paragraph (approximately 75-150 word) annotation entirely in your own words summarizing the source’s content, evaluating it for credibility and usefulness in your paper, and comparing it with your other sources.

Attached is the essay with citations to use for the outline

Differing Experiences of Americans from the Colonial Era through the Civil War

In the past, many Americans went through challenging times as they fought for equal treatment in society. A majority of the minority groups were discriminated against and denied the freedom of expression. Long before the civil war, the rights of some groups, such as the African American slaves and women, were dismissed. In many instances, the groups experienced severe suffering as a result of unequal treatment. However, there have been many changes in modern societies as there is more focus and emphasis on the need to respect and honor the rights of Americans, especially the minority groups. In the period between 1492- 1867, there were mixed reactions on whether the feelings of the people based on the availability of opportunities and the freedom to express themselves. Therefore, the analysis will focus on evaluating the differing experiences of Americans based on their independence and respect for human rights from the colonial era through to the civil war.

Differing Experiences of Americans from the Colonial Era through the Civil War

Between the colonial eras through to the civil war, there were mixed perceptions of the treatment of different groups in society. At the time, there were cases of slavery among the Native Americans living in the United States of America. The communities had established different tribal territories that resulted in insecurity and other issues. In many instances, the Native Americans held the war captives as slaves who would work in their farms. The slave trade took place between different Native Americans who captured and sold the weak people in society as slaves (American History, 2020). There were mixed reactions to the feelings of freedom of expression among the different groups of Native Americans. The groups with power were very ruthless and were responsible for the unfair treatment of the less privileged person in the community.

The Native Americans engaged in different activities, such as small scale farming. In an attempt to facilitate the smooth flow of operations in their farms, there were incidences of the small-scale slave trade that sought to secure labor for short durations (American History, 2020). Other Native Americans would engage in different activities, such as gambling. Those who lost in the gambling games would commit themselves to serve as slaves in the short term. In some instances, there were incidences of torturing as the groups engaged in different religious rituals. Some natural calamities, such as severe famine, would force some Native Americans to sell their children in exchange for food (Higginbotham & Meinig, 1988). The children were sold temporarily to serve as slaves in the buyer’s farms. At the time, the slaves from the Native American groups were not subjected to severe treatment. In most cases, the slaves would be integrated into the communities slowly over time. In some instances, the captured people would be assimilated into the communities and allowed to establish their own families within the tribes. Therefore, there was regard for the rights and freedoms of the Native American slaves.

In the history of the United States, from the pre-colonial era towards the civil war, there was a slave trade that included many African Americans. By the 1640s, the practices of enslaving African Americans for life had been established throughout the country; this resulted in problems for the immigrants who were brought in as slaves (American History, 2020). In many instances, African Americans were enslaved for life. There was the permanent enslavement of the children of the slaves, and within no time, the practices of the slave trade received legal recognition in Virginia. The increased importation of different products, such as tobacco by English men, increased the demand for the slaves. Following the legalization of slavery in Georgia, 1750, there was the importation of slaves directly from Africa. There was the establishment of a system of Black bondage. The slaves from the African origin were mistreated and had to persevere through immense suffering. Even though a few Native Americans were taken in as slaves, a majority of the African Americans were considered as prime bondsmen. In many instances, it was very challenging for the Africans to escape from bondage, as it was easy to identify them based on their skin color. For the Europeans and the Native Americans, it was easy to escape from slavery, as they would blend easily with other groups in society (New Jersey State Library, 2020). In most cases, the Indians were familiar with the terrains of the land; this made it easier for them to escape from slavery. Besides, there were fears that the enslavement of the Indians would result in increased warfare, and this would disrupt the lucrative slave trade business. Therefore, the Africans were exposed to severe treatments in comparison to other groups, such as Native Americans.

During the colonial era, a majority of African Americans were opposed to slavery and adopted different approaches to resist their bondage. The freedoms and rights of the African Americana were violated, and they never had the chance to lead ordinary lives. In most cases, the Black Americans were denied different opportunities, such as the ability to own property in various areas throughout the country (Jordan & Wright, 1992). In their efforts to protest against the injustices of slavery, the African American slaves would stage demonstrations against their masters. In some instances, the slaves would kill their owners and destroy the crops and animals within the firms. In some cases, some of the slaves would succeed in running away from slavery and would be able to lead normal lives. Following the escape, it was very challenging for the Black Americans to survive in the community as they were always looked down upon (Roper, 2006). Some of the runaways from different regions, such as Carolina and Georgia, came together to establish maroon communities. In many instances, the maroon communities would raid the plantations in search of food. There were incidences of revolt, where the slaves would come together and establish rebellions against their masters. For instance, in 1739, there was a significant rebellion that resulted in the deaths of fifty slaves and twenty-five Whites.

Later there were attempts made to control the behaviors of the slaves in the community. Black codes were developed to reduce the possibilities of uprisings and rebellion from the slaves. The laws were against the rights of the people. In many instances, there was an increase in unfair treatment against black communities in society (Jordan & Wright, 1992). Few opportunities were availed for the slaves, as they spent a considerable chunk of their time in the plantations working for their masters. Despite the increased freedom for the Whites in the community, the African Americans felt oppressed. There was a denial of freedom of movement for the slaves following the establishment of the black codes. In most cases, the slaves were required to obtain written permission from their masters in instances where they needed to travel. The slaves were prohibited from gathering in groups in the absence of their masters. There was severe punishment s for those who went against the black codes. In most cases, slaves found guilty of petty offenses were hanged.

Towards the end of the colonial period, the population of the blacks had rapidly increased throughout the country. At the time, a majority of the African Americans had come into the country as slaves, and their numbers had multiplied. The Blacks consisted of approximately 20 percent of the American population toward the end of the colonial era (Roper, 2006). A majority of the blacks in the country were native-born, and this resulted in the formation of African Americans. There were changes in different groups throughout the country, which resulted in the creation of new cultural groups. The African Americans managed to retains some aspects of their cultures, such as music, religion, and different types of dances. The slaves also managed to learn different customs and manners of their land of enslavement. Many African Americans learned how to communicate in English and other languages, such as Dutch. The changes in cultural aspects also influenced the Whites. The blacks become empowered over time and managed to establish different institutions, such as churches that were non- African in nature. A majority of the blacks were converted into Christianity (New Jersey State Library, 2020). At the time, African Americans started experiencing an increase in their freedoms and the opportunities to engage in different activities in the community. The African Americans secured access to formal education, which was instrumental in their movement towards independence.

During the pre-colonial period, the roles executed by the women were defined by their cultures. In most cases, the women never had any rights unless they were either married or had a male guardian. The women, especially those coming from the African American families, were forced to undertake difficult tasks, and in most cases, their efforts were never recognized. The African American women who had arrived in the country as slaves suffered from discrimination based on their race. The women also suffered from sexism from men. In the colonial era, the young girls would be forced to start working early by engaging in different tasks, such as fetching water. The women at the time were considered to be inferior (Higginbotham & Meinig, 1988). In many instances, the women suffered in the hands of their husbands who would commit acts of violence. There was a disregard for women’s rights in society, especially for the Black Americans who had arrived in the country as slaves. However, the treatment of women in the community improved, and they were provided with more opportunities in society.

Conclusion

Through the analysis, the study has developed a concrete understanding of America’s history during the pre-colonial era through the civil war. The study has examined the stories of ever-increasing freedoms and opportunities for different groups, such as the Native Americans, the African Americans, and the women from the slave communities. Based on the study, it is clear there was an increase in opportunities and freedoms for different groups over the pre-colonial era.

References

American History. (2020). Native Americans in the Colonial Period. American-history.net. Retrieved 30 May 2020, from https://american-history.net/colonial-period-2/native-americans-olonial-period/.

Higginbotham, D., & Meinig, D. (1988). The Shaping of America: A Geographical Perspective on 500 Years of History. I. Atlantic America, 1492-1800. Journal Of Interdisciplinary History19(1), 137. https://doi.org/10.2307/204246

Jordan, W., & Wright, D. (1992). African Americans in the Colonial Era: From African Origins through the American Revolution. Ethnohistory39(1), 90. https://doi.org/10.2307/482579

New Jersey State Library. (2020). Unit 4 Blacks in the Revolutionary Era, 1776-1789 | New Jersey State Library. New Jersey State Library. Retrieved 30 May 2020, from https://www.njstatelib.org/research_library/new_jersey_resources/highlights/african_american_history_curriculum/unit_4_revolutionary_era_blacks/.

Roper, L. (2006). Betty Wood, Slavery in Colonial America, 1619–1776. The African American History Series. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield2005. xi + 131 pp. ISBN: 0-7425-4418-4 (hbk.); 0-7425-4419-2 (pbk.). Itinerario30(2), 210-212. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0165115300014376