1. For this test you must answer the following two essay questions. 
  2. The total value of the test is 35% of your final grade.
  3. For answers, you must stick to the class readings. 
  4. You must cite quotes or ideas from the readings. You can use endnotes or footnotes. 
  5. You must submit the test by Thursday May 9th at midnight. Late submissions will be penalized. 
  6. Demonstrate your comprehension of both the readings and the lectures in your answers 
  8. You must submit your test in WORD or PDF – google docs, pages, or other programs will not work!

Answer the following TWO essay questions: 

• Write 1000 words maximum for each essay.

• Each answer should not be less than 800 words.

1. It has been eighteen years since them U.S. invasion of Afghanistan in 2001. Some analysts argue that waging the war was necessary to eliminate the terrorist threat to the U.S. national security while others claim that it was a disproportionate response to a minor threat. In your answer, demonstrate whether the war was justified or not? Is the United States more secure today than eighteen years ago? Also, do the gains from the war outweigh its costs for the United States and Afghanistan?

2. The United States has a long history of involvement in the Middle East. Some argue that the United States is largely responsible for the conflict and instability in the region while others believe that the rulers and governments of the countries in the Middle East are equally responsible for the region’s battered state. In your answer, demonstrate to what extent and in what ways has the United States contributed to the destruction of the Middle East? And how responsible are the Middle Easterners themselves for their problems?