Discussion Board

KEY TERM IS: Intrinsic Reward in Business *article is attached in pdf *

1.  thread should be in APA format, use the following headings, and include the information listed below in the following format and be posted directly in the discussion board:

·  Definition: a brief definition of the key term; this does not count in the word requirement.  The definition must be cited to the source.

·  Summary: Choose 1 of the articles and clearly summarize it in your own words. This must be 150 word minimum. While the majority of the summary should be focused on the article, be sure to note the article’s author as well as his/her credentials. This information should be clearly cited.

·  Discussion: Using a minimum of 400 words, write a brief discussion in your own words of how the article relates to the selected concept. The discussion should include input from BOTH ARTICLES chosen for the key concept.  Some discussion could include whether the articles agree or disagree; recommendations in the articles for integration in the workplace, etc.  

·  Biblical Integration: You must integrate your key term with a biblical truth. Integration of biblical truth is not simply listing a Bible verse but connecting the Scripture to the concept being covered. This section must be a minimum of 100 words.

·  References: All references must be listed at the bottom of the thread in current APA format.

Be sure to use the headers (Definition, Summary, Discussion, Biblical Integration, References) in your thread to ensure that all aspects of the assignment are completed as required.  Use 3rd person.

Any form of plagiarism (including cutting and pasting) will result in 0 points for the entire discussion board and may result in further penalties.

Decision Sciences Volume 51 Number 3 June 2020

© 2019 Decision Sciences Institute

Monetary Rewards, Intrinsic Motivators, and Work Engagement in the IT-Enabled Sharing Economy: A Mixed-Methods Investigation of Internet Taxi Drivers* Ying Hua School of Information Technology and Management, University of International Business and Economics, Beijing 100029, China, e-mail: huaying@uibe.edu.cn

Xusen Cheng† School of Information Technology and Management, University of International Business and Economics, Beijing 100029, China, e-mail: xusen.cheng@gmail.com

Tingting Hou School of Information Technology and Management, University of International Business and Economics, Beijing 100029, China, e-mail: htt94@foxmail.com

Rob Luo School of Information Technology and Management, University of International Business and Economics, Beijing 100029, China, e-mail: robluo@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

The IT-enabled sharing economy has enabled the taxi to become an Internet product, forming a popular new phenomenon in people’s daily lives and creating new roles for employees. How the Internet taxi drivers’ work engagement is influenced in the context of the IT-enabled sharing economy has become an interesting new area for IS researchers to explore. Although monetary rewards are important for employees’ behavior and per- formance, extant studies primarily emphasize the crowding-out and crowding-in effects of financial incentives, rather than the influencing mechanism. This article prospects and develops theoretically the effects of monetary rewards and workplace spiritual- ity on work engagement and demonstrates these effects empirically. An analysis of 35 semistructured interviews revealed three intrinsic motivators: stress reduction, job autonomy, and self-efficacy. We propose a structural model based upon motivation crowding theory. Responses to 235 survey responses showed that work engagement can be improved by providing monetary rewards and enhancing workplace spirituality

∗We thank the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 71871061), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities in UIBE (Grant No.CXTD10-06), Program for Excellent Talents in UIBE (Grant No.18JQ04), and the Foundation for Disciplinary Development of SITM in UIBE for providing funding for part of this research. All the authors contributed equally.

†Corresponding author.

755https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7614-6514

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through intrinsic motivators. This research contributes to exploring the mediating role of intrinsic motivators, extends motivation crowding theory to a new research field, and provides a new perspective on work engagement in the context of the IT-enabled sharing economy. Our findings extend the previous research associated with workplace spirituality and the existing knowledge of operations management from the perspective of labor intensity and trade-off between inputs and outputs. [Submitted: January 2, 2018. Revised: February 22, 2019. Accepted: February 25, 2019.]

Subject Areas: Employee Behavior, Internet Taxi Drivers, IT-Enabled Shar- ing Economy, Motivation Crowding Theory, and Monetary Incentives.

INTRODUCTION

In recent years, a growing body of literature has recognized the existence and importance of the IT-enabled sharing economy, a phenomenon born in the new age of the Internet (Botsman & Rogers, 2010; Hamari, Sjöklint, & Ukkonen, 2016; Edelman, Luca, & Svirsky, 2017). The IT-enabled sharing economy refers to “the peer-to-peer-based activity of obtaining, giving, or sharing the access to goods and services, coordinated through community-based online services” (Hamari et al., 2016, p. 2047). With the development of the IT-enabled sharing economy in cities that struggle with population growth and increasing density, the problems of inner-city traffic, congestion, and pollution have largely been reduced (Belk, 2014). An increasing number of information technology-based companies have invested capital in the transportation industry for car sharing services, such as Uber and Didi. The term Internet taxi refers to a new service mode in which private car owners, also known as Internet taxi drivers, provide taxi services through an Internet platform, such as a car-hailing mobile application (app). Although the diverse choice of services benefits taxi passengers by providing a convenient way of calling a taxi, it also causes fierce competition between different taxi platforms for drivers and within the new market share. For Internet taxi drivers, the benefits include a flexible work schedule and a share of commission from each order. However, the increasing number of Internet taxi drivers has brought associated management issues. For instance, owing to a lack of motivation from company management, one group of drivers moved from one Internet taxi platform to other platforms and shared negative comments about the company. It is therefore essential not only for Internet taxi companies to establish ways of motivating drivers to engage in their work but also to investigate this emerging phenomenon.

Economic incentives have increasingly gained prominence in organizational management as a means to adjust intrinsic motivation (Gneezy, Meier, & Rey-Biel, 2011; Dierynck, Landsman, & Renders, 2012; Ederer & Manso, 2013); however, questions have been raised about whether monetary incentives stimulate or damage intrinsic motivation. Motivation crowding theory suggests that external interven- tions could crowd out (undermine) or crowd in (strengthen) people’s intrinsic motivation to engage in work (Osterloh & Frey, 2000). Monetary rewards, as one kind of external intervention measure, could undermine or strengthen intrinsic motivation. For example, if the existence of monetary incentives is seen as a way to control an individual’s autonomy and self-determination, it could undermine

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intrinsic motivation (Warneken & Tomasello, 2008); however, if the existence of monetary rewards is seen as a supportive measure, it could motivate employees to work harder (Osterloh & Frey, 2000). Although motivation crowding theory has been applied to explain the crowding-out and crowding-in effects in differ- ent research fields (Wiersma, 1992; Lin, 2007; Cerasoli, Nicklin, & Ford, 2014), challenges remain in researching Internet taxi drivers’ behavior and the effect of monetary rewards, and little attention has been paid to the role of economic incentives on Internet taxi drivers’ intrinsic motivators.

Although extensive research has been carried out on employee behavior or performance, further studies are needed to consider management procedures, especially in the emerging phenomenon of the IT-enabled sharing economy. Rich, Lepine, and Crawford (2010) observed that work engagement can be seen as a behavioral aspect of employees and that monetary incentives alone do not explain the change in intrinsic motivation. Thus, we argue that workplace spirituality could be an additional source of change in intrinsic motivators and work engagement, given that the effects of workplace spirituality on intrinsic motivators have not yet been closely examined. Workplace spirituality refers to “the recognition that employees have an inner life that nourishes and is nourished by meaningful work that takes place in the context of community” (Ashmos & Duchon, 2000, p. 137). For Internet taxi drivers, such a community can be created through peer to peer or group communication with other drivers using modern mobile technologies such as “WeChat,” thus enabling them to share information about their personal feelings about work, the community, and taxi platforms. When they feel nourished in their work, they might engage more in their work. We applied quantitative dominant mixed methods to answer the following research questions:

(1) What intrinsic motivators of Internet taxi drivers influence their work engagement?

(2) How do monetary rewards and workplace spirituality interact with intrin- sic motivators in determining Internet taxi drivers’ work engagement?

Drawing on motivation crowding theory, this study examines the effect of monetary incentives on user behavior and performance in the context of the IT- enabled sharing economy. We introduce concepts from the psychology field and human resource management to the IS community to help understand this new phe- nomenon. Advances in technology have promoted the IT-enabled sharing econ- omy by building online platforms and creating new job roles for taxi drivers. Those new concepts (i.e., Internet taxi drivers’ intrinsic motivators and Internet taxi drivers’ work engagement) can therefore enable employers to improve the sys- tem of work and manage the Internet taxi drivers effectively, leading to better work performance.

The remainder of this study is organized as follows. The next section presents the theoretical background, followed by the methodology and a discussion of the qualitative and quantitative analyses and the results. Finally, we discuss the con- tributions and limitations of this study and present suggestions for future research.

758 Monetary Rewards, Intrinsic Motivators, and Work Engagement

THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

This section presents the research background and literature review from four aspects: the IT-enabled sharing economy, motivation crowding theory, workplace spirituality, and work engagement.

IT-Enabled Sharing Economy

The IT-enabled sharing economy, a new economic-technological phenomenon born out of the development of information and communications technology, is attracting considerable attention from related business and consumption practices (Botsman & Rogers, 2010; Hamari et al., 2016; Edelman et al., 2017). The increas- ing scarcity of natural resources and the growing awareness of favoring use over possession have given rise to an increase in the IT-enabled sharing economy in various domains, including transportation, tools, and housing (Botsman & Rogers, 2010), and different activities, such as renting, swapping, and trading (Hamari et al., 2016) on different platforms, such as Zipcar, Airbnb, Uber, and Didi. The emergence of mobile taxi apps has facilitated car-sharing behavior and has at- tracted numerous registered users, including passengers and Internet taxi drivers (Cheng, Fu, & Yin, 2017; Cheng, Fu, & de Vreede, 2018).

Recent literature examining the IT-enabled sharing economy has revealed several interesting themes: the conceptual definition of the IT-enabled sharing economy (Belk, 2014), consumer choice and motivation (Möhlmann, 2015; Hamari et al., 2016), online review and trust (Cheng et al., 2019), economic (Zervas, Proserpio, & Byers, 2017), and environmental (Heinrichs, 2013) impacts of the IT-enabled sharing economy. According to Belk (2014), the IT-enabled sharing economy is an economic phenomenon, which emphasizes possession and use over ownership. Engagement and participation in the IT-enabled sharing econ- omy are affected by many factors. For example, Hamari et al. (2016) argued that people are motivated to participate in the IT-enabled sharing economy by its sus- tainability, their enjoyment of the activity, and the economic gains. Additionally, Möhlmann (2015) suggested that utility, trust, cost savings, and familiarity are important factors for choosing a sharing option. The IT-enabled sharing economy has both economic and environmental benefits. Zervas et al. (2017) stated that the IT-enabled sharing economy has become a net producer of new jobs and a source of economic benefits, and Heinrichs (2013) claimed that the awareness of envi- ronmental protection benefits from the engagement of sharing activities. However, research from the perspective of the service provider, such as Internet taxi drivers’ work engagement in the IT-enabled sharing economy, remains limited.

Motivation Crowding Theory

Motivation crowding theory contributes to coordinating the traditional economic model and psychological theories by providing a systematic interaction between two kinds of motivation (i.e., intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation) and stipulates the underlying foundation for explaining why monetary incentives do not work as expected in some situations (Osterloh & Frey, 2000). Previous research has used motivation crowding theory to examine the effect of monetary incentives on prosocial behavior (Ariely, Bracha, & Meier, 2009) and employee behavior

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(Dierynck et al., 2012), and on health care (Promberger & Marteau, 2013) and education (Gneezy et al., 2011). Motivation crowding theory suggests that external intervention (monetary incentives or punishment) might undermine (crowd out) or strengthen (crowd in) people’s intrinsic motivation to engage in work (Osterloh & Frey, 2000). Intrinsic motivation refers to “the doing of an activity for its inherent satisfactions rather than some separable consequence” (Ryan & Deci, 2000, p. 56). Extrinsic interventions often emerge as material rewards, either monetary or nonmonetary (Ariely et al., 2009). The distinction between intrinsic motivation and extrinsic interventions is that the former emphasizes the inherent interest of doing something, whereas the latter is unrelated to the nature of the individual or the work.

Intrinsic motivation can play an important role in addressing the issue of performance behaviors (Zhang & Bartol, 2010; Cerasoli et al., 2014). Intrinsic motivation, the psychological need for autonomy and competence (Deci, Koest- ner, & Ryan, 1999), is associated with perceptions of satisfaction and pleasure (Vallerand, 1997; Venkatesh, 2000). Intrinsic motivation arises from the individ- ual’s intrinsic values of the work, relates to the nature of the work, and fosters the individual’s need for self-actualization and self-realization (House & Wigdor, 1967; Amabile, 1993). Previous studies have investigated self-efficacy and per- ceived enjoyment as important intrinsic motivators (Lee, Cheung, & Chen, 2005; Lin, 2007). By emphasizing pleasure and enjoyment as drivers of effort, employees with intrinsic motivation are process focused and consider work the end in itself (Grant, 2008). Compared with individuals motivated extrinsically, intrinsically motivated individuals participate or engage in a task more actively (Cerasoli et al., 2014). Employees with high intrinsic motivation tend to establish close relation- ships with others in work and realize the ethical consequences of their behavior (Tu & Lu, 2016). In this study, we consider intrinsic motivators the influencing factor of intrinsic motivation.

The crowding-out and crowding-in effects in the context of the IT-enabled sharing economy might show the effect of the following psychological mech- anisms: First, if individuals perceive they are controlled, external interventions crowd out intrinsic motivation (Osterloh & Frey, 2000). People with control aver- sion dislike the feeling of being controlled by economic regulation because the need for autonomy and self-determination is not satisfied (Rode, Gómez-Baggethun, & Krause, 2015). Second, if individuals perceive the external interventions to be supportive, external interventions crowd in intrinsic motivation (Osterloh & Frey, 2000). People’s intrinsic motivation increases because of enhanced self-esteem (Rode et al., 2015). Nevertheless, for Internet taxi drivers in the context of the IT-enabled sharing economy, whether external interventions (e.g., rewards) have a positive or negative effect on their intrinsic motivation has not yet been investigated.

Workplace Spirituality

Workplace spirituality has attracted the attention of both academicians and prac- titioners (Cavanagh & Bandsuch, 2002; Gotsis & Kortezi, 2008). However, the definitions of workplace spirituality are inconsistent and elusive. As discussed

760 Monetary Rewards, Intrinsic Motivators, and Work Engagement

above, this study uses the definition of workplace spirituality provided by Ashmos and Duchon (2000).

Workplace spirituality in this research is examined at the individual level, group level and organization level. The individual level refers to meaningful work, the group level refers to the sense of community, and the organization level refers to the alignment with organizational values (Milliman, Czaplewski, & Ferguson, 2003). Previous studies have discussed different dimensions. For example, Ashmos and Duchon (2000) classified workplace spirituality into three components—inner life, meaningful work, and community—which emphasized the individual and group levels. Kolodinsky, Giacalone, and Jurkiewicz (2008) presented three dis- tinct conceptual understandings of workplace spirituality—an individual’s personal spiritual values, the organization’s spiritual values, and the interaction between them—which emphasized the individual and organization levels. However, previ- ous studies of spirituality in sharing behavior are scarce, and they tend rather to emphasize prosocial behavior and the religious aspects of spirituality (Gold, 2003). Very little is currently known about the connection between a wider range of em- ployee behavior and workplace spirituality in the IT-enabled sharing economy.

Work Engagement

Work engagement describes the relationship between an employee and their work, and it relates to employee performance (Salanova, Agut, & Peiró, 2005; Schaufeli, 2013). According to Schaufeli, Salanova, González-Romá, and Bakker (2002), work engagement refers to “a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption” (p. 74). From the perspective of a needs-satisfying approach, work engagement can be conceptualized as the “harnessing of organization members’ selves to their work roles” (Schaufeli, 2013) and where “people employ and express themselves physically, cognitively, and emotionally during role performances” (Kahn, 1990, p. 694). Self-employment and self-expression are important for a person to drive their personal energies into role behaviors (Kahn, 1990). May, Gilson, and Harter (2004) divided work engagement into three dimensions: physical engagement, cognitive engagement, and emotional engagement.

In this study, work engagement refers to the behavioral aspects, measured by physical engagement. The term “physical engagement” was introduced by Kahn (1990) and developed by May et al. (2004) as one of the resources employees bring in role-related tasks and personal energies into role behaviors. Some jobs demand a level of physical exertion or even intense physical challenges (May et al., 2004). Derived from the need to feel competent and maintain autonomy, physical energies are focused on specific work activities (Rich et al., 2010). With increased levels of effort put into work, the physical energy invested facilitates the accomplishment of organizational valued behaviors (Kahn, 1990; Rich et al., 2010). However, although for workers in a labor-intensive industry, physical engagement has been found to be the most important part of work engagement, previous studies have not examined work engagement in relation to the IT-enabled sharing economy. This study aims to provide a view of Internet taxi drivers’ physical engagement.

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METHODOLOGY

This section addresses the procedures and methods used to conduct the qualitative and quantitative research in this study.

Research Design

This study uses a mixed methods design—a combination of qualitative and quanti- tative methods—to develop rich insights into our phenomenon of interest (Harrison & Reilly, 2011; Venkatesh, Brown, & Bala, 2013; Venkatesh, Brown, & Sullivan, 2016). Mixed methods research is useful for addressing confirmatory and ex- ploratory research questions (Teddlie & Tashakkori, 2003; Teddlie & Tashakkori, 2009) and for developing novel theoretical perspectives using a combination of the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative methods (Venkatesh et al., 2013; Venkatesh et al., 2016). Qualitative methods offer an effective way to perform exploratory research to develop a deep understanding of a phenomenon, construct propositions, identify and characterize structures and interactions between com- plex mechanisms, and generate novel theoretical insights (Venkatesh et al., 2013; Zachariadis, Scott, & Barrett, 2013). Quantitative methods are useful in confirma- tory studies for testing theories and causal relationships (Venkatesh et al., 2013; Zachariadis et al., 2013).

In the context of the IT-enabled sharing economy, the phenomenon of Internet taxi drivers who use car-hailing apps emerged and has yet to be explored. In addition, an understanding of the underlying antecedents of a driver’s intrinsic motivation to engage in the work in this new context is lacking. Therefore, Study 1 performs a qualitative analysis to gain in-depth insights into drivers’ intrinsic motivators. To obtain a deeper understanding of the targeted phenomenon by relating complementary findings to qualitative research, a quantitative approach with surveys was employed subsequently to test the research model in Study 2. As presented in Figure 1, Study 1 identified three intrinsic motivators for Internet taxi drivers. Based on the intrinsic motivators established in Study 1 and existing theoretical foundations, Study 2 proposes a research model, which is measured using construct development and validation and tested using structural equation modeling.

Study 1: Qualitative Research

We collected qualitative data from two sources: (1) two pilot interviews with Internet taxi drivers, and (2) 35 semistructured interviews with Internet taxi drivers. The interviews were semistructured and open-ended, which are beneficial for exploring and investigating the Internet taxi drivers’ intrinsic motivators. Initially, we interviewed two Internet taxi drivers to help us modify the interview guide, which we used to conduct 35 interviews.

Two researchers conducted the interviews, which were taped and transcribed; one researcher asked the questions whereas the other made notes and asked sup- plementary questions. The researchers were trained to react to responses rather than shift what seems important because of the difficulty of identifying useful information in the future (Eisenhardt, 1989). All interviews lasted approximately 20 minutes each and were transcribed within 24 hours (Eisenhardt, 1989). The

762 Monetary Rewards, Intrinsic Motivators, and Work Engagement

Figure 1: The relationship between two studies.

interview guide for interviewers comprised three sections: (1) background infor- mation, (2) driving experience and duration, and (3) intrinsic motivators for driving an Internet taxi. We followed the steps described by Miles and Huberman (1994).

The coding process identified three intrinsic motivators: stress reduction, job autonomy, and self-efficacy. Stress reduction, the most frequently mentioned motivator, refers to the decrease of an individual’s subjective evaluation of expe- rienced stress at work and relates to some positive work outcomes (Cavanaugh, Boswell, Roehling, & Boudreau, 2000; Pignata, Winefield, Provis, & Boyd, 2016). For Internet taxi drivers, stress reduction suggests that they feel a decrease in work overload and time pressure. Job autonomy, the second most frequently mentioned intrinsic motivator, refers to the extent of freedom, independence, and discretion in scheduling the work and determining work procedures (Hackman & Oldham, 1975). The third intrinsic motivator that emerged for the Internet taxi drivers is self-efficacy, which can be defined as the confidence in one’s own ability. One be- lieves the resources, skills, and ability possessed are necessary to engage in some specific behaviors (Jones, 1986; Bandura, 1997). Compared with individuals who think they will fail in a task, those ones who think they can perform do better (Gist & Mitchell, 1992). For Internet taxi drivers, their driving skills and familiarity with road conditions contribute to their self-efficacy.

Three sets of intrinsic conditions motivated taxi drivers to use car-hailing apps. Following a data analysis approach used in previous research (French, Luo, & Bose, 2017), we selected the three most frequently mentioned constructs as the intrinsic motivators in this research: stress reduction, job autonomy, and self- efficacy. Table 1 provides sample quotations from the interview data that illustrate each of the most frequently mentioned motivators. Table 2 presents the three intrinsic motivators identified from the interview data.

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Table 1: Data supporting the theme “intrinsic motivator”.

Associated Constructs Representative Quotations

Stress reduction 1. “It is much easier for me since all I need to do is wait for someone to order my service and drive him or her to the destination.”

2. “I wasn’t under any pressure when I began to drive an internet taxi. However, with more and more people flooding into the market and working as drivers, I have become stressed.”

3. “The pressure has certainly decreased. I have more time to relax and be with my family.”

Job autonomy 1. “If you want to earn more, you can work more. But if you want to take a rest, that’s permissible.”

2.“When I drove a traditional taxi, I could choose when to get off work and how long I worked each day. However, I am disturbed by the use of car-hailing apps now.”

3. “If I am busy in the morning, I can go to work in the afternoon. But sometimes the car-hailing apps will allocate me an order far away from my home when I want to get off work, which prolongs my work time.”

Self-efficacy 1. “I have worked as a driver for a long time. I can do the work well, though I always have to concentrate on the road conditions.”

2. “I like driving and chose to be a driver for my job. I like the job and do it well.”

Table 2: Intrinsic motivators for Internet taxi drivers.

Motivator Times Mentioned # of People

Stress reduction 40 29 Job autonomy 28 22 Self-efficacy 16 16

Study 2: Quantitative Research

An empirical study was conducted to explore the effects of monetary rewards and workplace spirituality on work engagement, combined with the findings of three intrinsic motivators concluded from the qualitative analysis. Figure 2 presents the research model and hypotheses.

(1) Hypothesis development

Our research model is based on motivation crowding theory. In the context of drivers’ work with car-hailing apps, workplace spirituality has an impact on intrinsic motivators and work engagement. In line with previous research in the field of behavior (Schaufeli, Bakker, & Van Rhenen, 2009; Bakker, Demerouti, & Sanz-Vergel, 2014), such as the career aspect and in the psychological field (Sonnentag, 2003; Schaufeli, Shimazu, Hakanen, Salanova, & De Witte, 2018),

764 Monetary Rewards, Intrinsic Motivators, and Work Engagement

Figure 2: Research model.

our dependent variable is work engagement behavior, which refers to physical engagement.

External interventions, such as monetary rewards, can be seen as an important determinant factor for employee motivation and performance, which will lead to returns in terms of firm-level performance (Aguinis, Joo, & Gottfredson, 2013). However, external interventions, monetary or nonmonetary, may crowd out or crowd in intrinsic motivation. Current research is adopting two basic psychological processes to examine the crowding-out effect of external interventions on intrinsic motivation (Frey & Jegen, 2001). During the first psychological process, when external interventions are perceived to reduce the self-determination of individuals, extrinsic control replaces intrinsic motivation. During the second psychological process, when individuals feel that their involvement and competence are not appreciated, which means their own interest and involvement are reduced, they will decrease their effort in the activity. Yet external interventions may also crowd in intrinsic motivation if they perceive the interventions to be supportive (Osterloh & Frey, 2000), which means that self-esteem and self-determination are not damaged by external interventions. Monetary incentives seem to be an important way to improve intrinsic motivators without losing freedom. For Internet taxi drivers, monetary rewards may damage the intrinsic motivator if the drivers feel they are being controlled by the external interventions of the organizations. However, the monetary rewards could improve the drivers’ intrinsic motivators if they perceive that the external interventions are supportive measures of their work. Monetary rewards could thus be a positive intrinsic motivator because they help meet the

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drivers’ biological and physiological needs as well as some higher-level needs (e.g., safety needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs) (Maslow, 1954; Aguinis et al., 2013). In the context of the IT-enabled sharing economy, the following hypothesis is developed:

H1: Monetary rewards relate positively to Internet taxi drivers’ intrinsic motivators in the context of the IT-enabled sharing economy.

Jurkiewicz and Giacalone (2004) established a positive relationship between workplace spirituality and employee motivation. The three components of work- place spirituality (i.e., the realization of a deeper sense and meaning, a closer relationship with colleagues, and an alignment of organizational values) benefit employees and organizations. Spiritual employees’ behavior may lead to increased job satisfaction and further affect intrinsic motivation (Gotsis & Kortezi, 2008). Fostering workplace spirituality helps individuals to feel connections with them- selves, the community, and the organization (Guillén, Ferrero, & Hoffman, 2015) and be motivated intrinsically (Jurkiewicz & Giacalone, 2004). Both organization- level workplace spirituality and personal-level workplace spirituality were found to relate positively to intrinsic motivation (Kolodinsky et al., 2008). Internet taxi drivers can use mobile apps to share information about their personal feelings sur- rounding their work, community and taxi platforms. Good outcomes from those levels of workplace spirituality could have a positive influence on the intrinsic motivators of Internet taxi drivers. Based on abovementioned works, the following hypothesis is developed:

H2: Workplace spirituality relates positively to Internet taxi drivers’ intrinsic motivators in the context of the IT-enabled sharing economy.

Motivation is a fundamental component of almost all research models re- garding human performance (Pinder, 2011; Cerasoli et al., 2014) because it can explain why one kind of specific or usual behavior happens, changes, or disap- pears. Much of the previous research examining the interrelationship of intrinsic motivation, extrinsic incentives, and performance has focused on intrinsic motiva- tion as a predictor of performance. Employee engagement relates to employees’ emotions in the environment (Roof, 2015). When people perceive that their work fits their expectations, they support each other in work, seek greater quality in their job, and engage more in their work (Pawar, 2009). Previous research has found a positive connection between intrinsic motivation and employee engagement for the creative process (Zhang & Bartol, 2010). Engaged employ