Cellphone Technology

Need the attached sub topics combined into one paper.

Please see grading rubric on word document as well for instructions. 

Main Topic: Cell Phone Technology 

Subtopics: a) Impact of Health b) Social Behavior c) Impact on Relationships d) Impact on Behavior.

Draft should reflect the progress you have made in completing each milestone related to the Course Project in the earlier weeks, synthesize ideas that you have developed as a team, and highlight the key areas of analysis you have identified throughout the course.

The Draft should be 15–20 pages in length and follow APA standards. Team members should provide their names at the beginning of their sections for evaluation. 

Running head: THE IMPACT OF CELL PHONES ON BEHAVIOR 1

THE IMPACT OF CELL PHONES ON BEHAVIOR 2

The Impact of Cell Phones on Behavior

Have you ever let your child use your cell phone just to keep them entertained? If you are a parent like me, I am sure you are guilty of doing just that. I know I am. Have you ever stopped to think of the potential harm that you may be doing though? With the rapid advancements in technology, kids these days are being exposed to smartphones increasingly at a younger age. It is not uncommon to see children that are barely old enough to hold a cellphone, let alone operate one. I know most parents do not see a problem with this practice, especially if the child is learning something new. Unfortunately, there is a darker side to this all too familiar story. The use of smartphones by children can have tremendous effects on their behavior because smartphones are directly linked with the development of Attention Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The use of smartphones by children has also been attributed to the development of dyslexia, various sleeping disorders, and problems mimicking that of an addiction.

The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have published two studies in recent history concerning children and smartphones (Edwards, 2017). The first study, conducted in 2011, showed a direct correlation between the increase in ADHD diagnosis with the increase in reported screen time by the parents (Edwards, 2017). They conducted a follow-up study in 2016 that, not only confirmed their original data but showed the largest increase in ADHD cases reported to children that are born into lower-class families (Edwards, 2017). Putting all this information together, it is reasonable to conclude that smartphone use by children is potentially dangerous. Not only does it increase the likelihood of developing issues with attention, but it is also increasing the likelihood of developing additional behavioral problems in the future.

To understand the link between smartphone technology and the development of childhood behavioral, we investigate the published works of Doctor Hosokawa and Doctor Katsura of Japan. Throughout their research, Doctor Hosokawa and Doctor Katsura were able to establish a link between childhood behavioral issues and the duration of time spent on smartphone devices (Hosokawa, Katsura, 2018). The study concluded that children who spend longer durations of time on smartphones have a significantly higher chance of developing short or long-term emotional problems (Hosokawa, Katsura, 2018). Unusual mood swings, extreme lows followed by extreme highs are all common side effects of prolonged use (Hosokawa, Katsura, 2018). Reports of short-term outbursts where more prevalent in children who reported using smartphones with longer durations (Hosokawa, Katsura, 2018). On a good note, however, the emotional outburst was found to dissipate once the usage of smartphones was removed, and the child no longer had access to the device (Hosokawa, Katsura, 2018). While this part of the study is good news for parents, some problems that may develop that just will not go away.

Doctors Maja Ružić-Baf and Andrea Debeljuh are professors at the University of Juraj Dobrila of Pula, Faculty of Educational Sciences in Pula, Croatia (Ružić-Baf, Rajović, Debeljuh, 2017). Their associate, Ranko Rajović, is a professor at the University of Primorska, Faculty of Education in Koper, Slovenia (Ružić-Baf, Rajović, Debeljuh, 2017). Together they have published many peer-reviewed papers recorded in the Croatian Scientific Bibliography Database (CROSBI) concerning early childhood development and the effects of smartphones thereof (Ružić-Baf, Rajović, Debeljuh, 2017). Their research proves that children are spending more time online using smartphone devices (Ružić-Baf, Rajović, Debeljuh, 2017). This type of behavior, they argue, promotes a sedentary lifestyle and an overall decrease in movement altogether (Ružić-Baf, Rajović, Debeljuh, 2017). This may lead to certain types of disorders such as dyslexia, dysgraphia, and dyscalculia, especially among children starting the first grade (Ružić-Baf, Rajović, Debeljuh, 2017). As a parent, some things to watch out for in your child is their difficulty reading and/or writing (Ružić-Baf, Rajović, Debeljuh, 2017). Other areas of concern may be a difficulty with spelling and/or the inability to translate their thoughts to paper (Ružić-Baf, Rajović, Debeljuh, 2017). Additionally, as a result of continuous and long-term exposure, children may have severe difficulty in making arithmetical calculations without the aid of a calculator (Ružić-Baf, Rajović, Debeljuh, 2017). With all these problems associated with the use of a smartphone, we are still just scratching the surface. The use of smartphones by children may also affect their quality of sleep.

According to a recent study, adolescents that own smartphones will sleep less on school days than their peers (Schweizer, Barrense-Dias, Akre, Suris, Berchtold, Schweizer, 2017). In addition to sleeping less than non-owners, long-term smartphone owners will sleep less than new owners of smartphones as well (Schweizer, Barrense-Dias, Akre, Suris, Berchtold, Schweizer, 2017). Parents may be able to identify whether their child is getting enough sleep by looking out for the signs (Schweizer, Barrense-Dias, Akre, Suris, Berchtold, Schweizer, 2017). Signs may include problems at school, low grades, difficulty in concentrating, and unusual daytime drowsiness (Schweizer, Barrense-Dias, Akre, Suris, Berchtold, Schweizer, 2017). While most parents would see the obvious cure to these problems as simply taking their smartphone away, they may find that easier said than done (Schweizer, Barrense-Dias, Akre, Suris, Berchtold, Schweizer, 2017). If your child has been using their smartphone device for many years, addiction-like symptoms are likely to occur.

According to a 2016 study conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO), children spend 3.3 hours daily with their smartphone, and 85% of them treat their smartphone as the most important thing in their lives (Marieta, Melinda, Monika, Csilla-Júlia, & I., 2016). In today’s modern society, it seems that smartphones have become a part of our everyday lives. However, in the case of children and smartphones, it may just have negative consequences (Marieta, Melinda, Monika, Csilla-Júlia, & I., 2016). In the case of 256 school-aged children, with age between 9-16 years, this just may prove to be the case. The practitioners of this study used a questionnaire that revealed demographic data of the students, as well as a section used for self-reporting free-time, physical activity, and smartphone-use related habits (Marieta, Melinda, Monika, Csilla-Júlia, & I., 2016). The results showed, conclusively, that children who placed a higher value on a smartphone-use scale reported more deprivation related symptoms (Marieta, Melinda, Monika, Csilla-Júlia, & I., 2016). Furthermore, younger children proved to be at a higher risk of developing smartphone-use habits than the older children did (Marieta, Melinda, Monika, Csilla-Júlia, & I., 2016). Another interesting find was that children who reported less physical activity were at a higher risk for developing deprivation symptoms (Marieta, Melinda, Monika, Csilla-Júlia, & I., 2016). No matter what the age group, however, all reported users of smartphones had significantly higher results of deprivation than those children who reported not to use a smartphone (Marieta, Melinda, Monika, Csilla-Júlia, & I., 2016). The report concluded with children that own their smartphones, in general, “utilize them from an increasingly early age for relationships, movie watching, and playing” (Marieta, Melinda, Monika, Csilla-Júlia, & I., 2016). Furthermore, smartphone use has become “a rapidly increasing habit raising even the level of addiction among children, backing such components of a healthy lifestyle as physical activity and different forms of sports” (Marieta, Melinda, Monika, Csilla-Júlia, & I., 2016). The excessive misuse of smartphones by children might become permanent and continue to be a risk-associated behavior among school-aged kids (Marieta, Melinda, Monika, Csilla-Júlia, & I., 2016).

In conclusion, the use of smartphones by children is dangerous, because they have been associated with multiple problems to include ADHD, dyslexia, sleep disorders, and addiction. I hope this has opened your eyes to the potential dangers that exist, what to look for with those dangers, and learned some useful information along the way. With all these issues, you should have noticed, have a common theme. That is the frequency and duration of use. Like all things, moderation is the key, and allowing your child screen time via a smartphone device should be no different. If you choose to allow them the use of a smartphone, please be smart about it. Monitor their use. If you do, hopefully, we can make a change for the good, and every child can benefit.

References

Edwards, C. (2017). Portable Device Fears Show Power of Social Development: How do small screens impact young minds? Communications of the ACM60(10), 21–22. https://doi.org/10.1145/3131271

Hosokawa, R., & Katsura, T. (2018). Association between mobile technology use and child adjustment in early elementary school age. PLoS ONE13(7), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0199959

Ružić-Baf, M., Rajović, R., & Debeljuh, A. (2017). ICT, Digital Rest (or Tiredness?) Spending Free Time in Front of a Screen. TEM Journal6(4), 883–887. https://doi.org/10.18421/TEM64-31

S., C., Marieta, G. G., Melinda, F., Monika, C., Csilla-Júlia, B., & I., G. G. (2016). Smartphone Use and Addiction Vulnerability Related to Specificities of Physical Activity in School-Aged Children. Acta Medica Marisiensis62, 91–92. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com.proxy.devry.edu:5050/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=121629627&site=ehost-live

Schweizer, A., Barrense-Dias, Y., Akre, C., Suris, J.-C., Berchtold, A., Schweizer, A., & Berchtold, A. (2017). Adolescents with a smartphone sleep less than their peers. European Journal of Pediatrics176(1), 131–136. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-016-2823-6