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Running Head: CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE WHISTLEBLOWER INCENTIVES 1

CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE WHISTLEBLOWER INCENTIVES AND PROTECTION 2

Title Page

Task 7 Foundation of the Study Section

Track- ADRP

Flexible Design Methods

Critical Analysis of the Whistleblower incentives and protection: Applying investment-banking incentives to control management unethical and illegal practices?

Table of Contents

Title Page 1 Table of Contents 2 List of Figures 4 Introduction to the Study 5 Introduction to the Section 1 5 Background of the Problem 6 Problem Statement 7 Purpose Statement 7 Research Questions 8 Nature of the Study 10 Discussion of Methodology 11 Discussion of Design 11 Narrative Design 11 Phenomenological Design 12 Grounded Theory and Ethnography Design 13 Fixed, Flexible, and Mixed Method Designs 14 Appropriateness of flexible design for the Project 14 Why other methods were not the best choice 15 Qualitative research methods 16 Interviews 17 Case study 17 Methods for Triangulation 17 Qualitative research methods Employed 18 Appropriateness of the Single Case Study 19 Research Framework 19 Research Framework Diagram 20 Research Framework Concepts 21 Research Framework Theories 21 Research Framework Actors 23 Research Framework Variables 23 Summary 24 Definition of Terms 25 Assumptions, Limitations, Delimitations 26 Significance of the Study 27 Reduction of Gaps in the Literature 27 Implications for Biblical Integration 27 Relationship to Cognate 28 Summary 28 Review of the Professional and Academic 28 Variables to Include Critical Analysis Investment-Banking Incentives 28 Related Studies 30 Anticipated and Discovered Themes 32 Summary Section 1 and Transition 32 Appendices 33 References 36

List of Figures

Figure 4.1 conceptual framework diagram…………………….………………………….20

Introduction to the Study

Whistleblower incentives and protection refers to the monetary reward as well as protection, which the United States Government offers to the individuals who expose certain wrongdoings in the community, more especially in government institutions. The Federal law requires the government to reward the whistleblowers a certain percentage of money that is recovered following their tips of exposing the wrongdoing acts (Sayibu, 2020). This percentage may go up to 30 percent of the total recovered money. In this paper, I will critically analyze whether Whistleblower Incentives and Protection are ways of applying investment-banking incentives to control management’s unethical and illegal practices. In addition, the researcher will find out whether whistleblowers are rewarded accordingly in terms of incentives and protection (Sayibu, 2020)

Introduction to the Section 1

Effective incentives and protection services for whistleblowers in various financial institutions (investment banks) are lacking (Sayibu, 2020). As a result, corruption is rampant in the general finance sector. The majority of companies lose many resources annually due to unethical practices in their finance departments (Sayibu, 2020). For instance, money laundering and tax evasion practices are common among the finance departments of various companies. Incentives and protection services in the finance departments are less effective compared to other departments especially in the private sector, (Gupta & Chaudhary, 2017). Managers and their subordinate staff are less empowered to report unethical practices. The finance sector is very important both to the government and to private corporations. It is essential to formulate effective incentive and protection laws, as well as policies, that apply to the finance departments of any company (Sayibu, 2020).

Whistle blowers incentives are very important in organizations to prevent unethical actions. However, few financial organizations have provided adequate whistleblowers incentives making it difficult for them to report such actions (Sayibu, 2020). As a result, corruption has become a serious concern in the general finance sector. Most organizations lose considerable resources annually due to unethical practices in their finance departments. This section 1, foundation of the study would provide detailed descriptions of the background of the problem, purpose and problem statements, nature of the study, research framework, and significance of the study, review of the professional and academic literature, summary section and transition (Sayibu, 2020). In addition, the section would provide research methodology that will be used in the paper. Finally, a concise summary is provided detailing the main points of this section (Sayibu, 2020)

Background of the Problem

Whistleblower incentives and protection rights are clearly stated per the federal laws. The main reason for having such laws is to promote transparency and motivate people to shun unethical behavior in various professions (Sayibu, 2020). Corruption is the main vice that is targeted by whistleblower incentives and protection. Federal laws require government agencies to provide maximum security to a whistleblower in the process of investigating a vice and even after the culprits have been apprehended (Sayibu, 2020). More so, law that the whistleblower gets a certain amount of the recovered resources requires it. Whistleblower incentives and protection services have promoted the war against corruption, especially in government institutions (Sayibu, 2020). However, the same laws and incentives have not been effectively applied in various private sectors, including the banking sector, (Lee & Turner, 2017).

Problem Statement

The general problem to be addressed is whistle blowers are not given adequate incentives and protection resulting in the hesitancy of reporting wrongdoing, misconduct and unethical behaviors. According to Andon, et al., (2018, p.165-178), “Lack of whistle blower incentives and protection makes it difficult for whistle blowers to report wrongdoing, as they feel insecure”. Ballan, (2017, p.475) stated “that the current whistle blowing system is not effective and therefore does not provide the basis for investigation of corruption cases and any misconduct within a company”. Keith, Todd & Oliver, (2016, p. 14) supported “these views by explaining that managers are not empowered to sanction employees involved in unethical behaviors because of lack of whistle blower incentives”.

The specific problem to be addressed is the failure of finance department to provide adequate whistleblowers incentives and protection within the investment -banking sector in the United States. In a recent study, Keith, Todd & Oliver, (2016, p.14) stated “that the finance department in any organization is a very critical area that can determine the overall performance of an organization”.

Purpose Statement

The purpose of this study is to come up with a reliable approach that can be utilized to apply incentives and protection laws in finance departments. This can be achieved by critically analyzing the applicability of the existing incentive and protection laws in the financial sector, specifically in investment banking (Sayibu, 2020). This study will attempt to fill the existing knowledge gaps by analyzing the factors that affect the applicability of incentives and protection laws in finance departments. The financial sector is very complex and any change can have a significant effect on the global economy (Sayibu, 2020). As such, it is necessary to formulate effective laws that can deter vices such as money laundering and other fraudulent activities within the investment-banking sector, (Gupta & Chaudhary, 2017). The analysis will focus on identifying the role of whistleblowers in the investment-banking sector. This study hopes to build on the existing information about the incentives and protection laws and their applicability in various sectors (Sayibu, 2020).

Research Questions

It’s important to note that integrity and corruption-free environment can be enhanced if specifically the involved organizations are audited or watched from another third party which may or may not from within the organization. The third party in this case is the whistle blower. This analysis considers the general facets of whistle blowing before focusing on finance departments within the investment-banking sector. The findings that aim to address the research question include: (Sayibu, 2020).

RQ1. What role do whistleblowers play in curbing unethical behavior? (Sayibu, 2020)

RQ2. What are the underlying incentives that instigate whistle blowing? (Sayibu, 2020)

RQ3. Why has the finance department failed to provide these incentives and protection for the whistleblowers? (Sayibu, 2020)

RQ3a. How has the finance department failed to provide incentives and protection to the whistleblowers? (Sayibu, 2020)

RQ3b. How does the finance department plan to address this issue? (Sayibu, 2020)

RQ4. What are the effects of legislations that encourage or aim to protect whistle blowers? (Sayibu, 2020)

Relationship of the Above Questions to Problem Statement

RQ1

This will help understand the exact role that whistleblowers play in shaping ethics by reporting any kind of wrongdoing, misconduct and unethical behaviors. The research aims to address the problem of whistleblowers not being given enough incentives and protection. To understand this problem, it is necessary to understand what role these whistleblowers play in a company and why it is very important (Sayibu, 2020).

RQ2

This question will enable the researcher to understand the kind of incentives and protection that instigate whistleblowers. Protection could be in the form of financial benefits or legal protection (Sayibu, 2020).

RQ3

This question will enable the researcher to dig deep into the possible causes of failure by the finance department to provide these incentives and protection. This will enable the researcher to understand to whom the finance department reports and thus understand whether the problem is within the finance department or those to whom the department is answerable. This will enable the researcher to understand exactly how the finance department has failed the whistleblowers. It will also shed more light on the exact grievances of the whistleblowers. This will explain the failure on the part of the finance department in this research. In addition, it will look at the approach the finance department aims at using to address this problem. In addition, this researcher will know if the finance department plans to offer a solution to this issue and how. This research question addresses the failure of the finance department to provide incentives and protection to the whistleblowers. It also aims at providing a solution to the problem.(Sayibu,2020)

RQ4

This question aims to enable the researcher to give information concerning whistle blowing in both public and private institutions, with special concentration on investment banking. In addition, the history of whistleblowing, the laws govern it, its benefits to the organization including both its theoretical and conceptual framework. From the research, the reader would be able to know about whistle blowing in corporations including the whistle blower’s incentives and protection (Sayibu, 2020).

Nature of the Study

This study aims at analyzing the factors that affect the implementation of incentives and protection laws in finance departments. More so, the study will conclude by providing recommendations about how various companies can effectively apply incentives and protection laws in their finance departments to curb vices such as corruption (Sayibu, 2020). As such, it is necessary to adopt an approach that does not only promote the research process but can also accommodate unforeseen changes that may arise in the process, (Gaus, 2017). Therefore, a qualitative approach to research will be used for this study. Qualitative data will be collected through interviews. Bank employees in the finance department will be engaged in the interviews to ensure that the study captures all the necessary information. The research will adopt the most appropriate approach to ensure that the research questions are answered in the findings. This study will adopt a flexible approach that can accommodate findings that are not anticipated or captured in the research questions. (Sayibu,2020)

Discussion of Methodology

This research study will be conducted with a flexible design using qualitative methods specifically; a single case study design will be used. This will be the best approach for this research since the research addresses why whistleblowers are not given adequate incentives and protection. This study does not only aim at identifying the reasons for not providing these incentives and protection. As part of the recommendations, the researcher hopes to come up with a solution drawn from the findings of the research. The solution should be that of a relief to whistleblowers (Sayibu, 2020). The findings of this research may, however, change the course of this research and that is why a flexible research design will be used (Walliman, 2017).

Discussion of Design

The purpose of the research design is usually to assist the researcher to use the findings of the study to address the problem stated in their research using the best way possible. It is, therefore, necessary that the researcher think critically about the information they want to get from the research and how they will use it to solve the problem. Failure to this, the findings of the research will be weak and will not be convincing enough (Gaus, 2017).

Narrative Design

Narrative design is the design that is used to describe lives of people, they also collect information about different people and tell stories about them. It narrates experiences of people. It tells the story of an individual in detail and normally it is done to get specific insight that will help minimize held perception of the practitioner and help participants to understand that sharing their stories is important (Bold, 2012). 

The use of this qualitative research method can be traced to have originated from the social sciences, for example, the use of interviews, ethnography and data coding systems that are well established in research development and research design can be used when performing a health research in different communities that are related to the research. However, it is important to note the significant gap that is involved in the research based on the discipline that are adopted (Riessman, 2007). 

The narrative design refers to the overall strategy that one may choose in the process of integrating the different components and the characteristics of research, as it is a study on the coherence and a logical way in which a design should be used and manage to conduct a study. That is relevant to the case study, in an attempt to address the research problem (Bold, 2012). 

Narrative design research involves collecting descriptions of occasions, as a rule through perceptions and meetings. This approach can be used when your motivation is to synthesize descriptive information to narrate a story, otherwise called restorying. Your story should demonstrate and communicate the result of the study by describing how and why something occurs. For example, an analyst may use this method to deal with taking into consideration pre-adult medication use in school, clarify why it occurs and indicate how an educator stands up to manage this issue (Sayibu, 2018)

Phenomenological Design

Phenomenology is a research design that is unstructured and does not involve evidence in the literature (Agee, 2009). With the increasing growth in doctoral level scholarships recently, designing phenomenological research is less common than one might think. However, most organizational or social problems attract a much empirical investigations. This implies that doctoral learners emphasize mistakenly on the methods of conducting research but not on the issue (Sayibu, 2018)

According to Mayoh (2015), phenomenology encompasses collecting the life experiences of people. Suppose these experiences are unique and extremely uncovered, and then the phenomenological studies can develop profuse descriptions of great value for diffusing the problem that has not well been studied. However, the results of phenomenological studies are not widely generalized beyond the sample. These results can be effective for the scoping of the dimensions of a systemized problem and gain adequate knowledge and understanding of the variables that pertain to the problem (Sayibu, 2018).

The knowledge obtained from phenomenological studies can help researchers to develop regular surveys and qualitative research, which can, in turn, generalize, to broader populace. However, if a problem has already been studied, yet another phenomenological study will develop a little insight. Finally, it is worth mentioning that the nature of the problem in phenomenological research should result to the selection of an appropriate method and design of the study. As such, it is essential to use phenomenological research design when necessary but not because it is the most common method (Sayibu, 2018).

Grounded Theory and Ethnography Design

Grounded theory is a systematic research method that enables one to develop a theory that offers an explanation about the population of one’s substantive area of research and how that concern would be resolved. It is a general research method, which guides a researcher on matters of data collection as well as a detailed procedure to be used in data analysis (Glaser & Strauss, 2017). Furthermore, this is a research tool used by researchers across the globe to conceptualize the social patterns and structures in a researchers’ area of interest, which is achieved by carrying out a constant comparison (Sayibu, 2018). This method is appropriate for use when one intends to develop a theory about a specific topic that has already been researched. Elsewhere, the ethnography is a qualitative research method that is based on diversity of culture. It is a systematic study used to explore a variety of cultural phenomena whereby a researcher observes a society based on the research topic before him (Street, 2014). Ethnographic research is appropriate when one intends to gain a full understanding of his or her customers as well as how the business is doing in order to come up with long-term strategies (Sayibu, 2018).

Fixed, Flexible, and Mixed Method Designs

Fixed research design is mainly used when conducting quantitative research. The research can be experimental, quasi, or semi-experimental. Statistical analysis methods such as correlation analysis and regression models are used to interpret the relationship between variables in fixed research designs. On the other hand, flexible research design is commonly used in qualitative research while mixed research design includes some aspects of both fixed and flexible research. A mixed method approach is best applicability in a case where the researcher hopes to obtain more accurate results that are verifiable. (Sayibu, 2018)

Appropriateness of flexible design for the Project

A flexible design is a research design, which allows the researcher to get feedback from his research. This feedback may end up changing the course of the experiment. This research design allows the researcher to analyze their target more closely thus saving on time and resources. This means that the researcher gets answers sooner than when using other designs. However, this design allows the possibility of bias in selection (Sayibu, 2020). The main aim of this research is to address the problem of whistleblowers not being given enough incentives and protection. It will also address the failure of the finance department to provide whistleblowers with necessary incentives and protection (Sayibu, 2020). At the end of this research, the researcher should be able to give recommendations that will involve a solution to the problem. If the researcher cannot offer a solution to this problem, they would have failed in their research (Gaus, 2017).

Why other methods were not the best choice

A research approach that involves fixed methods would not be appropriate for this study because it would limit the information acquired by the researcher. Fixed methods are extremely rigid hence; they do not accommodate changes made in the process of conducting research. For instance, if a necessity to expand the sample size emerged, fixed methods would not allow the researcher to expand the sample size, (Edmonds & Kennedy, 2016). On the other hand, flexible designs accommodate the expansion of the sample size even after the research process has started (Sayibu, 2020).

A mixed methods design would also create this kind of limitations for the study. This is mainly because mixed research approach combines qualitative and quantitative methods only. For this reason, crucial adjustments can barely be made after the research process has started. Also, a mixed method would require the researcher to seek approval for any change that they wish to effect in the study hence increasing the time required to complete research, (Edmonds & Kennedy, 2016). Another limitation that would arise concerns the flexibility of research variables. While flexible designs accommodate introduction of new variables that are relevant to the study, other research designs would strictly require the study to be based on the initial variables (Sayibu, 2020). As such, this influences the researcher to neglect certain details that are important because of the rigidity of the research designs. For this reasons, flexible designs are more appropriate for the research compared to other designs (Sayibu, 2020).

Qualitative research methods

Qualitative research methods are those methods that are used to collect non-numeric data. This data is used to interpret the meaning of a concept and understand the concept better. Through studying a given population, this research method uses non-numeric data to determine the relationship of cause between the parties involved. Qualitative research methods help the researcher to obtain answers as to why a certain problem exists. The problem of whistleblowers not being given incentives and protection could involve several parties. The problem could be with the government, that is, the policymakers who dictate how companies work. Alternatively, the problem could be with the finance department as stated in the research problem (Sayibu, 2020). The whole management of the company could be the issue or the whistleblowers themselves. Maybe they are demanding more than the companies can offer (Gaus, 2017).

This research is, therefore, requires that non-numeric data be collected from all the parties involved. The researcher has to look at the role of each party involved. This way they will be able to determine the cause of the problem. See if whistleblowers are important in a company if a company can manage without them. Also, look at all the possible causes of the failure to pay the incentives to know where the problem lies. The researcher should be able to approach the problem from all possible angles to come up with accurate findings. Several research methods can be applied to qualitative research (Sayibu, 2020). They may include the methods and tools that will be used in the research. These methods influence the results of the research and once again, the researcher should be careful when selecting the methods to use in their study. In this research, interviewing will be a convenient method since the research will be carried out in one selected company and not many people will be involved (Walliman, 2017).

Interviews

To ensure that reliable information is gathered from the financial department, an interview will be scheduled with the head of the finance department in the case study company. The company’s policymakers will also be interviewed to this effect. This is because there are not many people involved here. Interviews will enable the researcher to probe further in case the information given is not satisfactory (Sayibu, 2020)

Case study

This is a research method that involves a deep investigation of a single person or group selected for certain research. It could be either descriptive or explanatory. This research aims at analyzing the failure of the finance department to provide incentives and protection for whistleblowers. This could, therefore, be best described as an explanatory case study since it aims at answering the question ‘why?’ This research will be carried out in a selected company; the researcher will conduct a deep study on the problem stated. The researcher will collect data on the failure of the finance department in providing incentives and protection for whistleblowers in the selected company (Sayibu, 2020)

Methods for Triangulation

Any research that adopts more than one approach requires an appropriate triangulation method. Triangulation involves harmonizing the findings obtained from several sources that were analyzed using different research methods, (Walliman, 2017). This study will mainly be qualitative thus, numerous triangulation methods are not necessary. However, the research findings and conclusions will be based on interviews and observations from the selected company. This means that more than one set of data will be available for analysis in the research. The first analysis will be conducted on the exiting theoretical information that is available for review. A second analysis will be conducted to deduce crucial information from the interviews and the specific case study. Therefore, this study will adopt interpretivist and critical theory methods as the most appropriate triangulation methods. The two methods will effectively enable the researcher to triangulate the findings from different sources to come up with a reasonable conclusion as well as appropriate recommendations (Sayibu, 2020)

Qualitative research methods Employed

Qualitative research methods are those methods that are used to collect non-numeric data. This data is used to interpret the meaning of a concept and understand the concept better. Through studying a given population, this research method uses non-numeric data to determine the relationship of cause between the parties involved. Qualitative research methods help the researcher to obtain answers as to why a certain problem exists. The problem of whistleblowers not being given incentives and protection could involve several parties. The problem could be with the government, that is, the policymakers who dictate how companies work. Alternatively, the problem could be with the finance department as stated in the research problem (Sayibu, 2020). The whole management of the company could be the issue or the whistleblowers themselves. Maybe they are demanding more than the companies can offer (Gaus, 2017).

This research is, therefore, requires that non-numeric data be collected from all the parties involved. The researcher has to look at the role of each party involved. This way they will be able to determine the cause of the problem. See if whistleblowers are important in a company if a company can manage without them. Also, look at all the possible causes of the failure to pay the incentives to know where the problem lies. The researcher should be able to approach the problem from all possible angles to come up with accurate findings. Several research methods can be applied to qualitative research. They may include the methods and tools that will be used in the research (Sayibu, 2020). These methods influence the results of the research and once again, the researcher should be careful when selecting the methods to use in their study. In this research, interviewing will be a convenient method since the research will be carried out in one selected company and not many people will be involved (Walliman, 2017).

Appropriateness of the Single Case Study

Everything that pertains to the requirements of this research will be collected from one company selected by the researcher for this study (Ridder, 2017). Using one company for the research will enable the researcher to conduct comprehensive research on the matter without having to move from one company to the other. This will also ensure that the sample selected for this research is not too large. Thus, the researcher will be able to save on time and resources (Sayibu, 2020).

Research Framework

In order to arrive at the most effective solution regarding offering of incentives as well as protection to the whistle blowers and how it will enhance the eradication of wrongdoing in the investment banking institutions, a systematic analysis of the most appropriate strategies must be visualized in form of a schematic research framework (Sayibu, 2020). This research framework vividly illustrates the structure of the research plan besides helping the researcher in formulating the relevant research question, which are in line with our research statement above. All the research concepts as well as the assumed correlations between these concepts are illustrated in the research framework (Sayibu, 2020)

Research Framework Diagram

From the diagram below, it’s clear that the solution regarding the incentives and protection of the whistleblowers starts by looking at the various theories to which will contribute to their motivation. From the theories then various variables are considered before looking at the various concepts and how they relate. Finally, the actors where the whistleblowers are ends the cycle of incentives and protection of the whistleblowers via their satisfaction (Sayibu, 2020).

ConceptsActorsVariablesTheoriesLeadersFollowersAccountantsWhistleblowerMoral responsibilityExternal WhistleblowingWhistleblower demographicIntrinsic motivationLeadership styleMcClelland’s need theoryTransformational Leadership TheoryMaslow’s Motivational TheoryFigure 4.1 conceptual framework diagramFrom the above diagram, it is clear that the solution regarding the incentives and protection of the whistle blowers starts by looking at the various theories to which will contribute to their motivation. From the theories then various variables are considered before looking at the various concepts as well as the actors and how they relate (Sayibu, 2020).

Research Framework Concepts

Whistleblower; this is an individual who exposes the activities that are deemed not correct, unethical in both private and public sectors. They may feel insecure or harassed by the superiors since they do not trust their operations (Andon et al., 2018).Moral responsibility; this refers to the status of morally reserving punishment, blame, praise or reward for omissions or acts neglected or performed in accordance with the moral obligation of an individual. The whistle blowers are moral agents and they face different problems, which counts to moral obligation (Ballan, 2017).External Whistle blowing; this entails the reporting of unethical actions to outside law enforcing individuals like the police. The whistle blowers report any wrong action within the organization. It is important to note that, the Whistle Blowers Protection Act, 2011 was developed to protect whistleblowers from being victimized (Keith, Todd & Oliver, 2016).

Research Framework Theories

There are various corporate governance theories that may be used to explain the concept of whistle blowing in a corporate environment (Sayibu, 2020)Maslow’s Motivational Theory; this theory indicates that, Motivation is a result of an attempt by an individual to fulfill the five main basic needs (Acevedo, 2018). This need can create pressure that can influence the behavior of a person like the provision of psychological, social, esteem as well as safety needs (Sayibu, 2020).Transformational Leadership Theory; this theory focuses on how leaders can create positive and valuable change among their followers or those that they lead. It also focuses on increasing compliance by giving benefits and rewards (Banks et al., 2016).The Bible is used by Christians to teach good morals and doing what is right. As stated in proverbs 16:25 “There is a way that appears to be right, but in the end it leads to death” Corruption and fraud are vices that even the bible rebukes and calls upon Christians to act as whistleblowers (Sayibu, 2020)According to Leviticus 19:17, “Do not hate your brother in your heart. Rebuke your neighbor frankly so that you will not share in his guilt,” This biblical precept supports whistleblowing to eliminate the guilt that arises from a failure to take action.This study builds more on this analogy to inform the general public, corporate leaders, as well as the government on the need to implement incentives and protection laws across all sectors (Sayibu, 2020).McClelland’s need theory; this theory acknowledges the fact that needs are acquired or learned depending on the events people go through in their culture and environment. Individuals behave differently depending on their needs. For instance, the need for achievement involves strive to succeed and the drive to excess based on set standards (Jaquays & Thompson, 2018). The need for power focuses on the desire to make impact on people’s lives, urge to influence others and desire to change the way people perceive things. While the need for affiliation involves the urge to develop strong relationships with people and maintain them (Sayibu, 2020)

Research Framework Actors

Leaders; leaders can play an important role in shaping the behaviors of their followers towards whistle blowing. They must exhibit legitimate management behavior and moral conduct within an organization. Therefore, the leaders can encourage whistle blowing in an organization by acting as role models. The leaders must also have good interpersonal skills between their followers. The leaders to their businesses also consider the whistle blowers (Sayibu, 2020).Followers; followers are expected to whistle blow whenever there is a misconduct or unethical behavior in an organization. They also ensure that there is maximum compliance with organization policies. By them whistle blowing, they prevent catastrophic incidents in the organizations. They can also play a significant role in saving money for an organization and preventing disaster (Sayibu, 2020).Accountants; their role is to ensure there is complete compliance to finance and accounting policies within an organization. They also act as whistle blowers and report any misconduct within their department, hence helping an organization to combat any illegal operations by uncovering corruption cases (Sayibu, 2020).

Research Framework Variables

Leadership style; transformational leadership style is very effective in providing protection and incentives for whistle blowers. The Transformational leaders’ exhibit idealized influence, intellectual stimulation, individualized consideration and inspirational motivation (Banks et al., 2016). Such leaders are risk takers, critical thinkers, daring, inspiring and visionary as they collaborate as well as support their followers in performing their daily activities (Sayibu, 2020).Intrinsic motivation; one of the main reasons why whistleblowers engage in whistle blowing is that they possess an intrinsic sense of integrity and justice. According to Lee & Turner (2017), Whistleblowers brave the moist frightening situations when their reputation, security and careers are put on the line and they seek to hold people who have been involved in unethical practices accountable for their actions (Sayibu, 2020).Whistle blower demographic; this refers to organizational tenure, age and gender can influence whistle blowing within an organization. Many researches indicate that women are more ethical in behavior and judgment as compared to men. According to (Gupta & Chaudhary, 2017), senior employee are also more committed and have higher levels of organizational power as new employees do not understand the culture of the organization and may therefore be less concerned in whistle blowing (Sayibu, 2020).

Summary

In summary, the process of incentives and protection of the whistleblowers entails the interrelationship of the various theories, which regards the motivation of the workers who are specifically the whistleblowers in this case. It is from the theories that the various variables, concepts as well as actors do interact with each other to achieve the best conditions for the whistleblowers. An environment that encourages whistleblowing can best be created by implementing laws, policies and rules that are considerate of all factors and stakeholders involved (Sayibu, 2020).

Definition of Terms

Some of the key terms that may be affected by ambiguity in this study include;Whistleblower; Refers to the person who raises concerns about an unethical practice in the finance department. Whistleblowers serve as primary sources of information about a certain issue that would otherwise go unnoticed (Sayibu, 2020).Incentive; an incentive is a form a reward, mostly monetary, promised to any person who takes an initiative to perform a specified task. In this study, an incentive refers to the monetary reward promised to whistleblowers who report fraudulent activities and corruption (Sayibu, 2020).Protection; Protection refers to extra security services offered as a reward and surety to whistleblowers as a reward for their bold actions of reporting unethical practices (Sayibu, 2020).Variable; the term variable in this study has been used to refer to motivation, leadership style and the demographic factors of the whistleblowers. These variables are the specific aspects that will be analyzed to identify how a change in each affects the implementation of incentives and protection laws in finance departments (Sayibu, 2020).Framework; the term framework in the context of this study has been used to refer to the theoretical map that portrays the relationship between theories, variables, concepts, and actors analyzed in the research process (Sayibu, 2020).Demographic; Demographic factors include the age and gender of the whistleblowers in the context of this study. Such factors can affect the reception of different rewards offered as incentives (Sayibu, 2020).

Assumptions, Limitations, Delimitations

This study is not without several assumptions; some of the assumptions made include;1. The interviewees engaged in the study provided accurate information that is not affected by personal bias. The information captured from the interviews, therefore, is accurate and reliable for the study.2. The specific company that is used for the case study has organizational structure that is common for all companies. As such, the findings and conclusion made from the case study would be similar even when a different company is used for the case study.3. The study is based on the assumption that the sample size selected is neither small nor large for the research process. It is assumed that the sample size is a true representation of the general population; finance departments in various companies.This study is also affected by several limitations and delimitations. Some of the limitations and delimitations encountered include;1. Insufficient financial resources limited to this study. The research was conducted based on a case study of one company and a few interviewees to avoid incurring high costs. As such, lack of enough finances limited the scope of the study.2. The study was delimited to only finance departments of companies based in highly populated cities. This delimitation limited the study to a particular set of demographic factors and excluded some that are not found in the cities.3. Some level of bias arising from the flexible study approach may limit the accuracy of the findings and conclusions made in this study.

Significance of the Study

The study will be very useful to policymakers as well as individual employees, especially finance professionals in various companies. The existing laws on incentives and protection for whistleblowers are not effective in most finance departments. Most of the studies that have been conducted in the past have not comprehensively captured the aspect of implementing incentives and protection laws in the finance sector. This study provides an in-depth analysis of the factors that affect the effectiveness of the laws in various companies. In addition, the study will be useful to finance employees as well as leaders who seek to promote whistleblowing in their companies.

Reduction of Gaps in the Literature

This study will effectively reduce the knowledge gaps that are currently affecting the formulation and implementation of relevant incentives and protection policies and laws. Currently, there are no laws formulated to be exclusively implemented in the finance sector. This study will shed some light and recommend an action that should be taken to fill the existing gaps in literature. Many companies lack incentives and protection policies for whistleblowers because they do not understand the relevance.

Implications for Biblical Integration

The Bible is used by Christians to teach good morals and doing what is right. Corruption and fraud are vices that even the bible rebukes and calls upon Christians to act as whistleblowers. According to Leviticus 19:17, “Do not hate your brother in your heart. Rebuke your neighbor frankly so that you will not share in his guilt,” This biblical phrase supports whistleblowing to eliminate the guilt that arises from a failure to take action. This study builds more on this analogy to inform the general public, corporate leaders, as well as the government on the need to implement incentives and protection laws across all sectors.

Relationship to Cognate

Fraud and corruption activities are alleged to be common in finance departments in various companies. Various measures that have been implemented in the past have had little or no effect on these vices leading to massive losses of financial resources. As such, it is important to consider a different approach that motivates the perpetrators to behave differently. Offering incentives and protection to whistleblowers can attract even the corrupt and fraudulent employees. This means that a small portion of the financial resources that would be lost is used to ensure the finance professionals operate ethically.

Summary

In summary, it is essential to identify the key terms, limitations and delimitations, biblical integration and significance of the study to the public as well as key stakeholders in the finance sector. This study highlights the various ways in which relevant policies and laws can be implemented to promoted whistleblowing in various companies, especially in the finance departments. Whistleblowing is not only justified in the bible but it must also be justified by its goal to promote social welfare and justice in society.

Review of the Professional and Academic

Variables to Include Critical Analysis Investment-Banking Incentives

A variable refers to a specific factor that is being observed for changes in the variable itself or its influence on a different factor in research. Some of the variables to be considered in the critical analysis of this study include the financial value of the incentives offered to whistleblowers as well as the type of protection services extended. The study hopes to identify the financial value of an incentive that is more captivating for whistleblowers. The critical analyses will also involve an evaluation of the identified value compared to the financial resources being recovered from corruption or fraud in various finance departments.The investment banking incentives for Whistle blowing:In the US, the 2010 Dodd-Frank Act grants the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the Commodities Futures Trading Commission the power to pay financial awards to whistle-blowers as long as the information provided leads to criminal cases or successful regulatory cases that results in the recovery of funds. Unfortunately, less than 1 percent of whistle blowing cases result in financial penalties. In addition, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act grants the US Department of Justice the power to provide financial compensation to whistle-blowers. Section 922 of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act requires the government to award 10-30 percent of over one million recovered funds by the SEC to the whistle-blowers. However, like the Dodd-Frank Act, it does not often become applied. Perhaps the most opportune time when the statute could have been applied in American history was against Toyota Motor’s during the unintended breaking malfunction. However, no employee reported the malpractice to the authorities and none of the people who reported the design flaw in the floor mats.The False Claims Act requires the whistle-blower to act as a government agent where the individual presents a Qui Tam lawsuit on behalf of the government to the organization. However, there must be formal allegations explaining how the company is committing fraud against the government. Combined, these statutes represent the primary legislative incentives for whistle blowing that yield financial rewards. Unfortunately, the only similarities they share are the clear declaration that the statutes shall not provide any form of support in situations where the information does not lead to criminal cases. Fortunately, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency at the United States functions as the neutral agency for whistle-blowers victimized for their acts and firms subject to accusations made by whistle-blowers.From a banking perspective, few cases of whistle blowing involve financial companies since their operations often involve innovative circumventing of legal statutes and sometimes-reprehensible financial decisions. For instance, several insurance and investment companies move their clients’ financial holdings and manipulate their investment portfolios to make the company considerable returns while providing the expected returns to the clients. In essence, they pool client funds to invest and make returns that may or may not yield monetary compensation to their clients. (Van Dick R, Wagner U, Stellmacher J & Christ O, 2004). Even though the law requires them to discuss every investment decision with their clients, many individual investors and departments in investment banks operate side operations under the table as evident in the number of cases of collapsed companies having made unauthorized trading decisions without the clients’ awareness such as Enron. The collaboration to manage funds often fails due to the principle agency theory, where the investment bankers operate as independent agents with limited concern for the risk exposure to the principle, in this case, their clients.

Related Studies

Some research has been conducted in the past on the applicability and effectiveness of government-provided incentives. A study conducted by Lee & Turner, (2017) analyzes the effect of government-administered rewards whistleblowing in various companies. Federal laws on incentives and protection for whistleblowers have not effectively promoted whistleblowing in private corporations (Sayibu, 2020).In another research by Andon et.al (2018), it was discovered that employees have varied perceptions about whistleblowing and the incentives offered to promote whistleblowing. The majority of employees in various companies are concerned about the kind of reward they receive and whether it is worth taking a risk. As such, it is necessary to revisit the incentives policies to ensure that the rewards promised to whistleblowers are relevant to them (Sayibu, 2020).According to Gundlach, Martinko, & Douglas (2008), the issue of whistle blowing protection especially the incentive programs for whistle blowing in organizations is relatively new in the corporate world. Due to this, not much academic research has been done regarding the matter. The recently researched costs of corporate fraud have been shocking (Bouville, 2007). With the recent business globalization, security laws breeches and broken regulations, most organizations have been incurring numerous numbers of losses (Sayibu, 2020).Sweeny (2011) in his articles has considered some of the current concerns regarding the whistleblowers, organizations and regulators since the launch of the SOX and Dodd Frank Act (Rocha & Kleiner, 2005). His articles have managed to provoke various thoughts that bring about questions and startling facts. Both private and public organizations, the nonprofit and governmental companies have attributed about 5 percent of their annual losses to fraud (Sweeny, 2011). When put together, this figure could amount to about 2.9 trillion dollars in losses annually. However, since the confirmation of the SOX Act, numerous cases of financial statement frauds declined from about 10.8 percent in 2008 to about 4.8 percent in the year 2010(Bowen, Call, & Rajgopal, 2010).Robert Sexty (2011) confers about three kinds of ethical thinkers. His model approaches to ethical thinking describes different types of thinkers and their motivations to acting when confronted with any kind of wrongdoing (Dworkin, M & Near, P, 1997). While sexty’s book focused on the Canadian ethics, there have been some general truths that go beyond the geographical borders and can be applied to all kinds of people. The deontological theories usually focus on the goodness or righteousness of a particular act rather than consequences of the said act (Hauseman, 1986). During such times the obligations, duties and rights are usually very important (Earle & Madek, 2007). The rules in a particular organization tend to guide an individual behavior and their decision making (Grundlack, et al, 2008) The consequential theories on the other hand focus on the goals, results and results of the outcome with emphasis of maximum benefit or minimum harm (Carson, Verdu & Wokutch, 20017).

Anticipated and Discovered Themes

Some of the themes that are anticipated in the study include ethical leadership, mutual trust, and social welfare. Ethical leadership manifests through the kind of action taken by leaders to support whistleblowing in their organizations. Mutual trust must be developed among all stakeholders in the finance sector to ensure that whistleblowers understand its relevance from a common perspective. Finally, the main goal of encouraging whistleblowing is to safeguard and promote social justice and social welfare in society (Sayibu, 2020).

Summary Section 1 and Transition

The process of incentives and protection of the whistleblowers entails the interrelationship of the various theories, which regards the motivation of the workers who are specifically the whistleblowers in this case. It is from the theories that the various variables, concepts as well as actors do interact with each other to achieve the best conditions for the whistleblowers (Sayibu, 2020). An environment that encourages whistleblowing can best be created by implementing laws, policies and rules that are considerate of all factors and stakeholders involved. Whistle blowers incentives are very important in organizations to prevent unethical actions. However, few financial organizations have provided adequate whistleblowers incentives making it difficult for them to report such actions (Sayibu, 2020). As a result, corruption has become a serious concern in the general finance sector. Most organizations lose considerable resources annually due to unethical practices in their finance departments (Sayibu, 2020).The next section would provide detailed descriptions of the role of the researcher, the actions s/he will take to complete the study and discussions about bracketing. In addition, the section provides research methodology that will be used in the paper. Finally, a concise summary is provided detailing the main points of this section. The work of the whistleblowers is very effective in the fight against corruption as well as grabbing the public resources in all the private and public sectors. However, for the whistleblowers to effectively do their work, they must be rewarded accordingly in comparison with the work they do (Sayibu, 2020). They endanger their life to expose fatal information concerning wrongdoings which requires a good motivation strategy to them. They must also be guaranteed the security of their life as the exposed individuals may revenge by taking their life or even that of their family members, (Keith, et.al, 2016).

Appendices

Annotated Bibliography“Andon, P., Free, C., Jidin, R., Monroe, G. S., & Turner, M. J. (2018). The impact of financial incentives and perceptions of seriousness on whistle blowing intention. Journal of Business Ethics151(1), 165-178.”· This article was published within the last five years and the authors involved have extensive experience in research in the field of finance whistle blowing. The article was also published in the journal of business ethics which is a credible source for research.· The authors of this article conducted an experiment to determine whether financial incentives to whistleblowers encourage them to report illegal practices and unethical behaviors to the relevant authorities. The paper also examined the impacts of perceive significance of the illegal practice on the intention of accountants to whistle blow. The results of the experiment show that financial incentives encourage whistleblowers to report unethical behaviors. The authors also found out that the intention of whistle blowing is higher when the perceived significance of the illegal practice is also higher.· This article appreciates that there are various barriers to whistle blowing by providing a strategy in which the challenges can be overcome. The paper provides significant insights on how the perception of the significance of a wrongdoing affects the reporting of illegal practices.“Ballan, E. J. (2017). Protecting Whistleblowing (and Not Just Whistleblowers). Mich. L. Rev.116, 475.”· Ballan is an experienced researcher in the field of whistle blowing and has written numerous articles related to this topic. The article was also published within the last five years and therefore is credible.· This paper aims to explore various frameworks that have been developed to combat fraud. One of the frameworks discussed in this paper is the federal false claim Act. The paper also discusses provisions in the Dodd-Frank Act. According to the article, the SEC program provides an opportunity for employees to whistle blow and prevents their employers from taking any disciplinary actions against them. The paper recommends that congress should look at the CES rule to determine cause of action for organizations that take disciplinary measures for employees who report fraud cases.· This paper provides ways in which whist blowers and whistle blowing can be protected. This is very important in finance as many people engage in illegal practices in such a critical department. People who report such cases should be well protected.“Keith, N., Todd, S., & Oliver, C. (2016). An international perspective on whistleblowing. Crim. Just.31, 14.”· The authors of this article are extensively experience researchers in the field of whistle blowing. The article was also published in the last five years hence is credible.· This article explores various factors that affect whistle blowing. It also reviews various court cases on whistle blowing. The paper acknowledges that there are many employees who have had the intention of whistle blowing but have remained silent because of poor whistleblower protection I their organization. People fear being punished for whistle blowing. The paper recommends that better whistle blowing act should be developed to protect people who intent to whistle blow.· By recommending that better policies should be developed to protect whistleblowers, this paper shows that there exists a problem of whistle blowing within organization especially in finance.

References

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